Riĉardsona Vortareto

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Richardson Vortareto

Esperanto - English

Copyright © 1991 by Esperanto League for North America, Inc. All rights reserved.
[This page was copied November 7th, 2000 from “jimhenry,” which was formerly a link to the page.]

This work may be reproduced only for nonprofit educational or research purposes, and must include this heading. This work may not be reproduced for any other purpose without express written consent from ELNA.

This work is derived from Esperanto: Learning and Using the International Language by David Richardson (ISBN 0-945742-00-2), which also contains a history of Esperanto, lessons, and readings. This work uses certain conventions to indicate typographical features of the book:

"{" and "}" indicate text that is in boldface in the original. This work uses "^" for all superscripted letters, placed after the letter. [Revisions by Lagmanbeko anno Domini 2003: The dictionary now uses the bold as in the original and (Unicode) superscripted letters – ĈĜĤĴŜŬ ĉĝĥĵŝŭ – in place of the previous conventions of {brackets for bold print} and C^G^H^, etc. New words have also been added from Gerda Malaperis, Esperanto ASAP, and others, minor cosmetic changes made. Added links, including the "navigation tables" months and days of the week, Hebrew and Greek letters.]

The original, as in this file, uses "/" to indicate the end of a root word. The original, as in this file, uses "~" as a substitute for repeating the root word, or sometimes to indicate a suffix. Each definition in this file is contained in one line, regardless of how long it or the original definition is.

Page numbers correspond to the original work. All text from here on is from the original work [with the exceptions noted previously]. David Wolff, projektestro.

Esperanto - English

This is a necessarily abridged vocabulary for use with the lessons and readings in this book. The serious student is urged to obtain one of the good Esperanto-English and English-Esperanto dictionaries currently available.


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abak/o abacus

abat/o abbott

abdik/i abdicate, resign

abel/o bee, ~ujo beehive

abi/o fir (tree)

abism/o abyss, chasm

abol(ici)/i abolish

abomen/i abhor, loathe, ~aĵo abomination, ~inda abominable

abon/i subscribe, ~o subscription

abort/i miscarry, ~igi abort

abrupt/a abrupt

absces/o abscess

absolut/a absolute, ~e absolutely

absolv/i absolve, ~o absolution

absorb/i absorb

abstin/i abstain

absurd/a absurd

abund/a abundant, mal~a in short supply, ~i abound

acer/o maple

acid/a acid, sour, ~o acid, dolĉ~a bittersweet

-aĉ/ (suffix denoting disparagement; see p. 277), ~a no good, "lousy"

aĉet/i buy, ~(aĵ)o purchase, el~i redeem, ransom, sub~i bribe

-ad/ (suffix denoting continuation; see p. 143) ~e continually

adapt/i adapt (transitive verb.)

adept/o adept

adiaŭ farewell

adici/i add (arithmetic)

adjektiv/o adjective

administr/i manage, administer

admir/i admire, ~ant(in)o admirer, ~inda admirable

admon/i admonish, scold, "tell off"

adopt/i adopt

ador/i adore, worship

adres/o address, ~aro address list

adult/i commit adultery

adverb/o adverb

advokat/o lawyer

aer/o air, ~umi air out, ventilate, ~vojo airway

aeroplan/o airplane

afabl/a kind, good-natured, ~eco kindness

afer/o matter, thing, affair, business deal, ~isto businessman

afiŝ/o poster, sign(board), notice

aflikt/i afflict, ~o affliction

afrank/i prepay (letter or package), put on stamp(s)

Afrik/o Africa, afrikans/a Afrikaans

ag/i, ~o act, ~ema active, ~ado activity, re~i react

agend/o agenda, appointment book

agit/i agitate, stir up

agl/o eagle

agnosk/i acknowledge, formally recognize

agoni/o death throes, ~i be near death

agord/i tune (transitive verb.)

agrabl/a pleasant, agreeable

agraf/o hook, clasp

agres/o aggression, ~i commit aggression, ~(em)a aggressive

aĝ/o age, pli~a older, elder, plen~a grown-up, grand~a elderly

aĥ! oh! ow! (dismay)

ain ע, [unicode “ayin”] Hebrew 16th letter, numeric value 70, antaŭan, sekvantan

aj! ouch! (pain)

ajl/o garlic

ajn -ever, -at all (see p. 164)

-aĵ/ (suffix denoting concrete thing; see p. 154), ~o a thing

akademi/o academy

akapar/i monopolize, corner

akcel/i accelerate, speed (somebody or something) up, ~ilo accelerator

akcent/o accent, stress

akcept/i accept, receive (guest, etc.)

akcident/o accident, ~i have an accident

akcipitr/o hawk

akir/i acquire, get, ~ebla obtainable cf. obten/i; ~o, ~aĵo acquisition, attainment, booty

aklam/o, ~i acclaim

akn/o pimple, passing blemish

akomod/i accommodate (transitive verb.)

akompan/i accompany, ~(aĵ)o accompaniment

akord/o chord, accord

akr/a sharp, ~atona sharp-toned, shrill, ~igi sharpen

akr(e)/o acre

akrid/o locust

aks/o axle, axis

aksel/o armpit

aktiv/a active, ~o assets

aktor/o actor, ~i act

aktual/a current, present-day

akupunktur/o acupuncture

akurat/a punctual, on time

akustik/o acoustics

akuŝ/i labor (giving birth), ~istino midwife

akuz/i accuse, ~o accusation

akv/o water, ~umi water, irrigate, ~ero drop (of water), fal~o, ~falo waterfall

akvari/o aquarium

al to(wards), ~veni arrive, ~iĝi join, ~porti bring, fetch, ~doni add, ~meti attach, put onto, ~teriĝi land, ~trudi impose upon, force, ~proksimigi bring close together

alest/i be there, be present

alef א Hebrew 1st letter, numeric value 1, antaŭan, sekvantan

alf/o Greek 1st letter α [alpha], capital form Α, numeric value 1, antaŭan literon, antaŭan valoron, sekvantan

alfabet/o alphabet, an~a, an~o illiterate

algebr/o algebra

ali/a (an)other, else, ~igi, ~iĝi change, alter, ~landano citizen of another country, alien, ~vorte in other words

alk/o elk, moose

alkohol/o alcohol

almenaŭ at least

almoz/o alms, "handout," ~ulo beggar

alp/o alp, mountain pasture, ~ismo mountaineering

alt/a high, tall, ~eco height, ~statura lanky, of high stature, ~en into the heights, mal~aĵo plain, flatland

altern/i alternate, ~a alternating

alternativ/o alternative, option

alud/i allude, refer to, ~o allusion

alumet/o match (fire)

alumini/o aluminum

am/i, ~o love, ~ant(in)o lover, mal~i hate, ~inda lovable, ~indumi woo, court, pac~a peaceloving, ver~a truth-loving

amar/a bitter

amas/o heap, pile, mass, hom~o crowd, ~igi pile up, ~fabriki mass produce

amator/o, ~a amateur

Amazon/o Amazon

ambasad/o embassy

ambasador/o ambassador

ambaŭ both

ambici/o ambition, ~a ambitious

ambon/o ambo, pulpit

Amerik/o America

amik/o friend, ~a friendly, ~eco friendship, mal~o enemy

amor/o sexual love, ~i make love

amortiz/i amortize, deaden, ~ilo shock absorber

ampleks/o extent, dimension, ~a extensive, ample

ampol/o bulb (electricity)

amput/i amputate

amuz/a amusing, funny, ~i amuse, ~(ad)o amusement, fun, ~iĝi have a good time

-an/ (suffix denoting citizen, member; see p. 94), ~o citizen, member, ~aro group, ĉikag~o Chicagoan, uson~o U.S. citizen, krist~o, krist~a Christian

analfabet/a, ~o illiterate

analiz/i analyze, ~o analysis

analog/a analogous

ananas/o pineapple

anas/o duck

anatem/o anathema, ban

anemi/o anemia, ~a anemic

anemon/o anemone

angil/o eel

angl/o Englishman, ~a English, ~e in English, ~ujo, ~io, ~olando England, ~ismo anglicism

angor/o anguish, agony

angul/o corner, angle

anĝel/o angel, ~a angelic

anim/o soul, grand~a magnanimous, unu~a unanimous, ~i animate, act as master of ceremonies

ankaŭ also, too, ankaŭ mi me too

ankoraŭ still, yet, ankoraŭ ne not yet, ~foje once more

ankr/o, ~i anchor

Ann/o, ~a Anne

anonc/i announce, advertise, give notice, ~isto announcer, ~eto want ad

anonim/a anonymous

ans/o handle

anser/o goose, ~vice single file

anstataŭ instead of, ~e instead, ~i take the place of, ~igi substitute, replace

antaŭ before, in front of, ~e formerly, in front, ~vidi foresee, ~parolo foreword, ~ĝoji look forward to, ~tagmeze a.m., ~zorgeco foresight, prudence, mal~ behind, ~ ol before (conjunction), ~ tri tagoj 3 days ago

anten/o antenna

anticip/i anticipate, think or act ahead

antikv/a antique, ancient

Antverpen/o Antwerp

apaĉ/o apache, ruffian, "hood"

aparat/o apparatus, set

apart/a apart, separate, special, ~igi separate

apartament/o apartment

aparten/i belong

apati/o apathy, ~a apathetic

apel(aci)/i, ~o appeal (law, etc.)

apenaŭ just barely, hardly

apendic/o appendix, ~ito appendicitis

aper/i appear, be published, mal~i disappear, ~o appearance

apetit/o appetite, bonan ~on enjoy your meal

apertur/o hole, opening

aplaŭd/i applaud, clap

aplik/i apply (transitive verb.)

aplomb/o aplomb, self-assurance, "nerve"

apog/i lean, support, rest against (trans verb.), ~ilo support, prop

apostat/a apostate

apostol/o apostle

apotek/o pharmacy, drugstore

aprec/i, aprez/i appreciate (as a connoisseur)

April/o April; antaŭan, sekvantan

aprob/i approve, ~o approval

apud by, beside, ~e nearby

-ar/ (suffix denoting collection; see p. 132), an~o group

arab/o Arab, ~a Arabic, Arabian, ~e in Arabic, ~io, ~ujo Arabia

arakid/o peanut

arane/o spider, ~aĵo spiderweb

aranĝ/i arrange, ~o arrangement

arb/o tree, ~aro forest, woods, ~eto shrub, bush

arbust/o shrub, bush, ~aro shrubbery

ard/i glow with heat, ~a ardent, ~o heat, passion

are/o area

arest/i arrest

argan/o crane (mechanics)

argil/o clay

arĝent/a, ~o silver

arĥiv/o = arkivo

ark/o arc, rainbow, paf~o bow (weapon for shooting arrows)

arkaik/a archaic, obsolete

arke/o ark

arkitekt/o architect

arkiv/o archives, records, files, ~ejo record office

arkt/a Arctic, ~o the Arctic

arleken/o jester, buffoon

arm/i arm (weapons), ~aĵo warrior, ~ilo weapon, ~iltenejo armory, sen~a unarmed, sen~igi, sen~iĝi disarm

arme/o army, mar~o navy, flug~o air force

arogant/a arrogant

art/o art, ~a artificial, artistic, ~efarita artificial

artifik/o subterfuge, trick(ery), ~a contrived, by trickery

artik/o joint (anatomy, technology), el~igi dislocate

artikol/o article

artiŝok/o artichoke

as/o ace (cards, etc.)

asert/i assert

asfalt/o asphalt

asist/i assist (officially)

asoci/o association

asp/o asp, cobra

aspekt/i appear, look, ~o aspect, appearance

asperg/i sprinkle

aspir/i aspire (to), hope for

astm/o asthma

astr/o heavenly body, ~onaŭto astronaut, spaceman

atak/i, ~o attack, assault

atenc/i assault, violate

atend/i wait (for), expect, ~ejo waiting room

atent/i pay attention, ~igi draw attention to, point out, ~on! attention! look out!

atest/i attest, testify, bear witness, ~anto witness, ~o testimony, certificate

ating/i attain, reach

atlet/o athlete, ~a athletic, ~ismo athletics

atm = antaŭtagmeze, a.m. cf. posttagmeze

atmosfer/o atmosphere

atom/o atom, ~a atomic, ~bombo atom bomb

atut/o, ~i trump (cards, etc.)

or, aŭ... aŭ... either... or...

aŭd/i hear, ~antaro audience, ~iĝi be heard, aŭd-vida audio-visual, dis~igi broadcast

aŭdac/i dare, ~a daring

aŭgur/o omen, sign; ~ado processing omens, producing signs

Aŭgust/o August; antaŭan, sekvantan

aŭkci/o auction

aŭroro aurora, dawn

aŭskult/i listen, ~ilo earphone

aŭstr/o Austrian, ~ujo/io Austria

Aŭstrali/o Australia, ~ano Australian

aŭt(omobil)/o car, ~vojo freeway, expressway

aŭtobus/o bus, ~haltejo bus stop

aŭtomat/a automatic, ~igi automate

aŭtor/o author

aŭtoritat/o authority, ~a authoritative

aŭtun/o autumn, fall; antaŭan, sekvantan

av/o grandfather, ~ino grandmother, pra~o great-grandfather

avantaĝ/o advantage

avar/a miserly, stingy, mal~a generous

aventur/o adventure

avenu/o avenue

avert/i warn, caution, ~o warning

aviad/o aviation, ~ilo aircraft

avid/a eager for, greedy, ~i covet

aviz/i notify, advise, ~o notification

azen/o donkey

Azi/o Asia, ~a Asian, Asiatic, Mez~o Central Asia

azil/o asylum, sanctuary


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ba! "nuts!"

babil/i chatter, "shoot the breeze"

babord/o port side (nautical)

bagatel/a trifling, insignificant

bak/i bake, ~aĵo baked goods, ~ejo bakery

bal/o dance, ball

bala/i sweep, ~ilo broom

balanc/i rock, swing (see p. 214)

balast/o ballast

balbut/i stammer, stutter

baldaŭ soon

Baldearaj Insuloj Balearic Islands

baled/o ballet

balen/o whale

balkon/o balcony

balon/o balloon

ban/o bath, ~i bathe (transitive verb.), ~ĉambro bathroom, ~kostumo bathing suit, ~urbo spa

banal/a trite, commonplace

banan/o banana

band/o band, gang

bandaĝ/o bandage

banderol/o wrapper (for mailing, etc.)

bangal/o bungalow

banĝ/o banjo

banjan/o banyan (tree)

bank/o bank, ~noto, ~bileto bank note, paper money

banked/o banquet, ~ĉambro banquet room

bankrot/i go broke, be bankrupt

bapt/i baptize, christen, ~opatro godfather

bar/i bar, obstruct, ~ilo fence, barrier, ~ilpordo gate

barak/o barrack, shanty, shack

barakt/i writhe, flounder, move convulsively

barb/o beard, ~isto barber

barbar/o barbarian, ~a barbarianic

barbiro = barbisto

Barbr/o, ~a Barbara

barĉ/o borscht (soup)

barel/o barrel

baril/o fence, hedge (from Fryer, “Efika Ruzo”)

bas/a, ~ulo bass (musical term)

baston/o stick, cane, baton, lam~o crutch

bat/i hit, beat, ~o a blow

batal/o, ~i battle

baz/o base, basis, ~i base (transitive verb.)

bazar/o bazaar, fair, street market

beb/o baby

bedaŭr/i regret, be sorry about, ~inde unfortunately, regrettably

bedelio bdellium, bedellium (Oxford: a tree sap resembling myrrh)

bek/o beak, bill

bel/a pretty, fine, good-looking, ~ega exquisite, gorgeous, ~sona pretty-sounding

belg/o, ~a Belgian, ~ujo, ~io Belgium

bemol/o flat (music)

ben/i bless, ~o blessing, ~anta generous, mal~i curse

bend/o tape (recording, adhesive, etc.), strip, binding, ~i tape (transitive verb.)

benk/o bench

benzin/o gasoline, ~ujo gas tank

ber/o berry

best/o animal, beast

bet ב Hebrew 2d letter, numeric value 2, antaŭan, sekvantan

bet/o beet, or Greek 2d letter β [beta], capital form Β, numeric value 2, antaŭan, sekvantan

betul/o birch (tree)

bezon/i need, require

Bibli/o Bible

bibliotek/o library

bicikl/o bicycle

bien/o estate, farm, property, ranch, ~isto rancher, farmer

bier/o beer

bifstek/o (beef)steak

bikin/o bikini

bilard/o billiards

bild/o picture

bilet/o ticket, bill, note

billion/o billion (vague in Esperanto). per Wells, 109 = miliardo, 1012 = duiliono. antaŭan, sekvantan

bind/i bind (books)

binokl/o binoculars

bird/o bird

bis! encore! one more time!

bisin/o fine linen

bizar/a bizarre, odd, weird

blag/i kid, pull someone's leg, ~o sly joke

blank/a white, blank

blanket/o blank check, carte blanche

blasfem/i cuss, blaspheme

blek/i bleat, bellow, neigh, etc. (general word for animal cries)

blind/a blind, ~ulo sightless person, ~umi dazzle

blok/i block, ~o block, pad (paper)

blond/a blond, fair, ~ul(in)o a blond

blov/i blow, ~instrumento wind instrument

blu/a blue

bo/ (prefix denoting relation by marriage; see p. 193)

boa/o boa (snake)

boac/o reindeer

boat/o boat

bobel/o, ~i bubble

boben/o bobbin, spool, coil

boj/i bark

boks/i box, ~o boxing

bol/i boil (intransitive verb.), ~eti simmer

Bolivi/o Bolivia

bolŝevik/o, bolŝevist/o Bolshevik

bomb/o, ~i bomb

bombon/o bonbon, piece of candy

bon/a good, nice, ~e well, OK, ~ega excellent, ~ulo nice guy, ~eco goodness, ~fara abundant, generous, ~koreco kindness, ~volu, ~vole please, ~venon welcome, ~ŝancon good luck, ~deziroj good wishes, pli~igi improve, mal~a bad, evil, ne~a no-good

bor/i bore, drill

bord/o bank (of river), shore, edge

bors/o stock exchange

bot/o boot

botaŭr/o bittern, heron

botel/o bottle, en~igi to bottle

bov/o bovine animal: ox, cow, etc., ~aĵo beef, ~ido calf

brajl/o Braille

brak/o arm; ~umi, en~igi embrace; ~seĝo armchair

branĉ/o branch, bough, ~eto twig, ~oriĉa branching

brand/o brandy

brankard/o stretcher

brasik/o cabbage

brav/a gallant, worthy, ~e! bravo!

Brazil/o Brazil

breĉ/o breach, gap

brems/o brakes, ~i brake

bret/o shelf, ~aro set of shelves, cabinet

brid/o, ~i bridle, restrain(t), check

brik/o, ~a brick, ~eto bar (candy etc.)

bril/i shine (intransitive verb.), ~a bright, brilliant, ek~i flash

brit/a British, ~ujo/io Britain

brod/i embroider

brog/i scald

brokant/a secondhand, ~i deal in secondhand goods, ~isto secondhand dealer

bronz/o, ~a bronze

bros/o, ~i brush

broŝur/o paperback booklet, pamphlet, leaflet, ~(it)a paperbacked

brov/o (eye)brow

bru/o noise, ~i make a noise, ~a noisy, ~ema clamorous

brul/i burn (intransitive verb.), ~aĵo fuel, ~ema flammable; ~umo inflammation (from Fryer, The Esperanto Teacher, 1907)

brun/a brown ~hara brunette,

brust/o chest, breast

brut/o head of cattle, ~aro livestock

bub/o kid, brat, urchin; jack (cards)

buĉ/i butcher, slaughter, ~isto butcher

bud/o booth, stall

budĝet/o, buĝet/o budget

buf/o toad

bufed/o buffet

buk/o, ~i buckle

buked/o bouquet

bukl/o, ~i curl (hair)

buks/o boxwood

bul/o lump, clod, chunk

bulb/o bulb

buldoz/o bulldozer

bulk/o roll (bread)

bulten/o bulletin

bulvard/o boulevard

bunkr/o bunker, shelter (military)

bunt/a multicolored

burd/o bumblebee

burĝ/a middleclass, ~o middleclass citizen, et~a lower middleclass, ~aro bourgeoisie

burĝon/o, ~i bud

bus/o bus

buŝo mouth, ~a oral, ~umi muzzle, ~tuko napkin

buter/o butter, ~pano bread and butter

butik/o boutique, shop, store, ~umi go shopping

buton/o button, ~(um)i button (transitive verb.)


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cadi צ, final form, or cadi sofit ץ, [unicode “tsadi”] Hebrew 18th letter, numeric value 90, cadi sofit is used rarely as 900, antaŭan, sekvantan

car/o czar

ced/i give way, yield, give up

cedr/o cedar

cel/o aim, goal, purpose, ~i aim (gun, etc.), intend,~ilo (gun)sight

celebr/i celebrate

cend/o cent

cent hundred, ~milo 100,000, jar~o century, centennial. antaŭan, sekvantan

centr/o center, ~a central

central/o power station; telephone or telegraph exchange, "nerve center"

cenzur/i, ~o censor

cep/o onion

cerb/o brain, ~umi puzzle over, rack one's brains

ceremoni/o ceremony

cert/a certain, ~e certainly, ~igi make certain, certify, ~(a)grade to a certain degree

cerv/o deer

ceter/a rest of, additional, remaining, ~e besides, moreover, what's more, ~o remainder

ci thou (see p. 302)

cibernetik/o cybernetics

cic/o nipple (human, cf. mampinto) ~umo nipple (artificial)

cidr/o cider

cifer/o numeral, digit, ~plato dial, rond~e in round numbers

cigan/o, ~a Gypsy

cigar/o cigar, ~eto cigarillo

cigared/o cigarette

cign/o swan

cikatr/o scar

cikl/o cycle

cikoni/o stork

cilindr/o cylinder; roller (printing press, etc.)

cim/o bug; bedbug

cindr/o ash, cinder, ~ujo ashtray, ~igi incinerate

cinik/a cynical

cir/o, ~i wax, polish

cirk/o circus

cirkl/o circle

cirkonstanc/o circumstance

cirkul/i circulate (intransitive verb.), ~ado circulation; traffic

cirkumcid/i circumcise

cirkvit/o circuit (electricity/electronics)

cit/i cite, quote, ~aĵo quotation

citron/o lemon

civil/a civilian, non-military

civiliz/i civilize, ~(ad)o civilization

civit/a civic, ~o incorporated town; city-state, ~ano citizen

col/o inch


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ĉagren/i annoy, grieve (transitive verb.), ~o annoyance, grief, disappointment

ĉam/o chamois (European mountain antelope)

ĉambr/o room, chamber, ~aro apartments

ĉampan/o champagne

ĉampion/o champion

ĉan/o trigger

ĉap/o cap

ĉapel/o hat

ĉapitr/o chapter (book, etc.)

ĉar because, since, for

ĉar/o cart, chariot, ~eto carriage (typewriter), ~umo wheelbarrow

ĉarlatan/o charlatan, quack, imposter

ĉarm/o, ~i charm, ~a charming

ĉarpent/i build from wood, ~isto carpenter

ĉas/i hunt, chase, ~isto hunter

ĉast/a chaste, mal~eco impropriety

ĉe at, with, ~esti be present, attend

ĉef/a chief, main, ~o "boss," ~urbo capital city, ~ministro prime minister

ĉeĥ(oslovaki)/a, ~o Czech(oslovakian)

ĉek/o check (bank)

ĉel/o cell, miel~aro honeycomb

ĉemiz/o shirt

ĉen/o chain, ~ero link

ĉeriz/o cherry

ĉerk/o coffin

ĉerp/i draw (from a source--water, etc.), el~ita exhausted, used up; out of print

ĉes/i cease, stop (intransitive verb.)

ĉeval/o horse, ~ejo stable

ĉevrono chevron, rafter

ĉi (denoting nearness; see p. 127) ~kune herewith, ~momente at this moment

ĉi/ (forms correlative; see p. 127)

ĉiel/o sky, heaven, ~(glor)a heavenly, ~arko rainbow

ĉif/i crumple (transitive verb.), crease

ĉifon/o rag, scrap, ~isto ragpicker

ĉifr/o secret code, en~i encipher, de~i decipher

Ĉikag/o Chicago, ~ano Chicagan

ĉikan/i quibble about, carp at; haze

Ĉili/o Chile

ĉin/o, ~a Chinese, ~ujo, ~io China

ĉirkaŭ around, about, ~i surround, ~e roundabout, ~aĵoj surroundings, ~preni embrace, hug

ĉiz/i chisel, carve, ~ilo chisel, graving tool

-ĉj/ (suffix used with names; see p. 168)

ĉokolad/o, ~a chocolate

ĉu whether; makes a question (see p. 174) Ĉu ne? Isn't that so?


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da of (with expressions of quantity; see p. 123)

dafn/o daphne

daktil/o date (fruit)

dalet ד Hebrew 4th letter, numeric value 4, antaŭan, sekvantan

dam/o dame (notable lady), queen (cards, chess), king (checkers), ~oj, ~ludo checkers

damaĝ/i, ~o damage

damn/i damn, ~e damn!

dan/o Dane, ~a Danish, ~ujo, ~io, ~lando Denmark

danc/i, ~o dance, ~ist(in)o, dancer

dand/o dandy, fop, dude

danĝer/o danger, ~a dangerous

dank/i thank, ~on thanks, ~' al thanks to, ~(em)a thankful, ne~inde don't mention it, you're welcome, ~ofesto Thanksgiving

dat/o date (time), ~i date (letter, etc.), ~reveno anniversary

daŭr/i endure, last, continue on (intransitive verb.), ~e continuously, ~a lasting, ~igi continue (trans. verb.), ~igota to be continued, mallong~a short-lived

de of, from, by (see p. 293), ~longe for a long time now, ~post since, ~meti put/take off, ~preni take away, deduct, ~nove (all over) again, ~veni originate, come from

dec/a fitting, proper, ~e decently, properly, ~i be fitting

Decembr/o December; antaŭan, sekvantan

decid/i decide, ~o decision, ~iĝi make up one's mind, ~(ig)a decisive

dediĉ/i dedicate, devote

defend/i defend, (sin)~o defense

defi/o, ~i challenge

definitiv/a definite, definitive, ~e definitely, positively

degel/i thaw, melt (intransitive verb.), ~(iĝ)o thaw, melting

deĵor/i be on duty

dek ten, ~a, ~ono tenth, ~ope by tens. antaŭan, sekvantan

dekan/o dean (college, etc.)

deklam/i recite (poetry, etc.), declaim

deklar/i declare, state, ~o declaration, statement

deklar(aci)/o declaration, proclamation

dekliv/o slope, hillside

dekor/i decorate

dekor(aci)/o decor, decoration

dekret/o, ~i decree

dekstr/a right(hand), ~en to the right, mal~a left, ~ulo right-hander, ~ume clockwise

deleg/i to delegate, ~ito a delegate

delegaci/o delegation

delikat/a delicate, fine, dainty, mal~a coarse, crude

delir/i be delirious, ~o delirium

delt/o Greek 4th letter δ [delta], capital form Δ, numeric value 4, antaŭan, sekvantan

demand/i ask (question), pri~i interrogate

demisi/i resign (an office)

demokrat/o democrat, ~a democratic

demokrati/o democracy

demon/o demon, ~a demonic

demonstr(aci)/i demonstrate, ~o demonstration

dens/a dense, thick, concentrated

dent/o tooth, ~a dental, ~isto dentist, ~rado cogwheel, gear

denunc/o denunciation, (legal) charge

departement/o department (gov't, etc.)

depend/i = de/pendi depend

depon/i deposit

depost = de/post (ever) since

deprim/i depress, ~o depression

des (see ju), des pli all the more

desegn/i draw, design, ~(aĵ)o drawing, design

desert/o dessert

desku/i shake off

destin/i destine, ordain, earmark, ~o (usually with la) fate, destiny

detal/o detail, ~e in detail, retail, (po)~isto retailer

detektiv/o detective

determin/i determine, fix

detru/i destroy, ~(ad)o destruction

dev/o a duty, ~i have to, must, ~igi compel, ~iga compulsory

deviz/o watchword, motto, slogan; foreign exchange, draft on foreign bank

dezert/o desert

dezir/o, ~i desire, wish, want

Di/o God, ~a divine, ~aĵo superstition, godly-thing; ~servo worship service; ~tim/a, -i, -o God-fearing, devout

diabl/o devil, ~a devilish, diabolical, ~e! darn! the dickens!

diafan/a diaphanous, transparent, mal~a opaque

diafilm/o film strip

diakon/o deacon

dialekt/o dialect

dialog/o dialog

diamant/o diamond

diboĉ/i live or act dissolutely, ~o loose living, dissipation, debauchery, ~igi corrupt

dies/o, ~a sharp (music)

diet/o diet, ~a dietary

difekt/i spoil, damage, injure

diferenc/i differ, be different, ~o difference, ~igi differentiate

difin/i define, ~o definition, ~ita definite

dig/o dike, embankment, ~i dam up, form an embankment

dign/o dignity, ~a dignified

dik/a thick; corpulent; bold (type), ~eco thickness, mal~a thin, ~fingro thumb

dikt/i dictate

diktator/o dictator

diktatur/o dictatorship

dilem/o dilemma

diletant/o dilettante, dabbler

diligent/a diligent, hardworking

diluv/o flood, deluge, antaŭ~a antediluvian; very ancient

dimanĉ/o Sunday; antaŭan, sekvantan

diplom/o diploma, ~ito a graduate, ~iĝi graduate, ~ita certificated

diplomat/o diplomat

dir/i say, tell, antaŭ~i foretell, kontraŭ~i contradict, laŭ~e allegedly, so-called, oni~o rumor

direkt/i direct, manage, steer, ~ilo rudder, helm, handlebars, ~o direction

direktor/o director, manager

dis/ (prefix denoting dispersal or separation; see p. 179) ~igi separate, divide, voj~iĝo crossroad

disciplin/o discipline

disĉipl/o disciple

disk/o disc, (phonograph) record, (telephone) dial, ~i dial (on telephone)

diskret/a diskrete, ~e diskretely, ~o discretion

diskut/i discuss, ~(ad)o discussion

dispon/i (pri) have at one's disposal, have available to use or dispose of, ~o disposition, ~igi make available

disput/i dispute, argue

distanc/o distance

disting/i distinguish, ~a distinctive, ~o renown, distinction

distr/i distract, divert, entertain, ~ita distracted, absent-minded

distribu/i distribute

distrikt/o district

divan/o divan, couch

diven/i guess right, find out by guessing

divers/a varied, various

divid/i divide, separate; share

divizi/o division (military)

do so, then, therefore

dogan/o customs, duty (at border), ~ejo customshouse

dogm/o dogma

dok/o dock

doktor/o doctor (title)

dokument/o document

dolar/o dollar

dolĉ/a sweet; gentle, soft, tender, ~aĵo candy, ~ul(in)o sweetheart, ~e! take it easy!

dolor/o pain, ~i be painful, hurt (intransitive verb.), ~igi hurt (transitive verb.); N.B. La dorso doloras al mi, or La dorso doloras min, My back is hurting me; but Mi dolorigis la dorson, I've hurt my back.

dom/o house, building, ~eto cottage, ~ego mansion

domaĝ/i begrudge or regret; wish to spare (some misfortune, expense, etc.), ~o a pity, ~e what a pity, that's too bad

don/i give, el~i publish, issue, re~i give back, return, al~i add, dis~i distribute, deal (cards), sin~(em)a devoted, selfless

donac/i give (present), ~o gift, present, ~e as a gift, gratis

Donjuan/o, donĵuan/o a Don Juan, woman-chaser

dorlot/i pamper, pet, coddle

dorm/i, ~o sleep, ~ema sleepy, ~igi put to sleep, en~iĝi go to sleep, ~eti nap

dorn/o thorn

dors/o back

dosier/o dosier, file

dot/o dowry, ~i endow

doz/o dose, ~i measure out (medicine, etc.)

drak/o dragon

dram/o drama

drap/o (woolen) cloth

drapir/o drape(ry), cloth covering (window, bed, etc.), ~i drape

drast/a drastic

draŝ/i thresh

drat/o wire, pik~o barbed wire

dres/i tame, train (animals)

drink/i drink (to excess), ~aĵo "booze," ~(em)ulo a boozer, alcoholic

driv/i drift

drog/o drug

dron/i drown (intransitive verb.), ~igi drown (transitive verb.)

du two, ~a second, ~ono half, ~ope by twos, ~obla, ~obligi double. antaŭan, sekvantan

dub/i, ~o doubt, ~inda doubtful, sen~e no doubt

duilion/o per Wells, 1012. antaŭan, sekvantan

duk/o duke

dum during, while, ~e meanwhile, in the meantime

dung/i hire, employ, mal~i fire, ~ito employee

duŝ/o shower, ~ejo showerstall, ~ilo showerhead, sin~i take a shower


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eben/a level, even, smooth, ~aĵo plain

ebl/a possible, ~(ec)o possibility, ~i be possible, ~e be (also as suffix; see p. 154), Kiel eble plej baldaŭ As soon as possible

ebri/a drunk, ~o drunkenness, ~ulo a drunk, ~iĝi get drunk

ebur/o ivory

-ec/ (suffix denoting a quality; see p. 186), ~o a quality

even

edelvejs/o edelweiss

eduk/i educate, bring up

edz/o husband, ~ino wife, ~(in)iĝi get married, eks~iĝi get divorced, ge~oj married people, a couple

ef/o ephah, a Biblical measure of grain. GWT, 18 quarts (17 liters). NIV about 36#/16 kg

efekt/o effect, impression produced

efektiv/a actual, real, ~e in fact, actually, ~igi bring about, ~iĝi come to pass, come true

efik/i have effect, be effective, ~o effect

efod/o (Judaism): ephod, sleeve-less shirt worn as part of priestly garb

-eg/ (suffix denoting augmentation; see p. 104) ~e extremely

egal/a, ~i equal, ~e equally, all the same; it doesn't matter, ~eco equality; a draw (tied score)

eĥ/o echo

ej! Hey! Oh! -ej/ (suffix denoting place; see p. 82) ~o place

ek/ (prefix denoting moment of beginning; see pp. 92, 211) ek! away we go, let's start! ~de since, beginning as of

ekip/i equip, ~(aĵ)o equipment

eklezi/a ecclesiastic, ~o church (institution, not building)

ekonomi/o economy

ekonomik/o economics, ~a economical

ekran/o screen

eks/ (prefix denoting former, ex-; see p. 220) ~iĝi resign, ~igi fire, discharge

ekscit/i excite, ~a exciting, ~o excitation, excitement

eksklud/i exclude

ekskluziv/a exclusive

ekskurs/o excursion, sightseeing trip, outing

eksped/i dispatch, ship, send off

ekspedici/o expedition

eksperiment/o, ~i experiment, ~a experimental

ekspert/o expert, specialist

eksplod/i explode (intransitive verb.), ~o explosion, ~motoro internal combustion engine, ~ilo explosive device, ~aĵo explosive, ~igi blow up (transitive verb.)

ekspluat/i exploit, utilize

ekspon/i exhibit, demonstrate; expose (photography)

eksport/i export

ekspres/o express (train, messenger)

ekstaz/o ecstasy, ~a ecstatic

ekster outside of, ~a outer, external, ~(aĵ)o exterior, ~e outside, ~lando, ~lande abroad, ~ordinara extraordinary

ekstravaganc/a extravagant, high-flown

ekstrem/a extreme

ekvator/o equator

ekvilibr/o equilibrium, balance

ekvivalent/o, ~a equivalent

ekz. abbreviation for ekzemple

ekzamen/i examine, ~o examination, test

ekzekut/i execute (criminal)

ekzempl/o example, ~e for example

ekzempler/o copy (of book, etc.)

ekzerc/i, ~o exercise, sin ~i practice

ekzist/i exist, ~o existence

ekzotik/a exotic

el out of, from (also as prefix; see p. 253), ~igi pull, ~iri exit, go out, ~uzi use up, wear out, ~paroli pronounce, ~lerni master (learn completely)

elast/a elastic

elegant/a elegant, mal~a coarse, crude

elekt/i choose, elect, pick out, ~o choice, election

elektr/a electric, ~o electricity

elektron/o electron

elektronik/a electronic, ~o electronics

element/o element, ~a elementary, elemental

elimin/i eliminate

elizi/i elide, ~o elision

elokvent/a eloquent

-em/ (suffix denoting inclination; see p. 197) ~i have a tendency to

embaras/o embarrassment, perplexity, difficult situation, ~i embarrass, put in a "difficult spot"

embusk/o, ~i ambush

emerit/a retired, ~o retired person

emfaz/o emphasis, ~a emphatic, ~i emphasize

eminent/a eminent

emoci/o emotion, ~i move, stir emotionally

en in, into, ~iri enter, go in, ~landa domestic, ~havi contain, include, ~havo contents, ~iĝi get in, ~igi insert, ~migri immigrate

enciklopedi/o encyclopedia

-end/ (suffix denoting compulsion; see p. 245) far~aĵoj things that need to be done

energi/o energy, ~a energetic

enigm/o enigma, puzzle, riddle

enket/o inquiry, investigation, ~i investigate

entrepren/i undertake, take it upon oneself to do, ~o enterprise, ~ema enterprising

entuziasm/o enthusiasm, ~a enthusiastic

enu/i be bored, be tired (of something), ~iĝi get bored, ~(ig)a boring

envi/i, ~o envy, ~a envious

episkop/o bishop, ~a episcopal

epizod/o episode

epok/o epoch, era, age

epope/o epic poem, ~a epic

epsilon/o Greek 5th letter ε [epsilon], capital form Ε, numeric value 5, antaŭan (literon kaj valoron), sekvantan literon, sekvantan valoron

-er/ (suffix denoting single element; see p. 154) ~o item, particle, element dis~igi disintegrate

erar/i err, make a mistake, ~o error

erik/o heather, ~ejo heath

ermit/o hermit

erotik/a erotic

erp/i, ~ilo plow

escept/i except, exclude, ~o exception, ~e de with the exception of

esenc/o essence, ~a essential

eskal/o ladder, ~i scale (walls, etc.)

eskalator/o escalator

eskap/i, ~o escape

eskort/i, ~o escort

esper/i, ~o hope, ~anto Esperanto, ~eble hopefully, mal~i despair

esplor/i explore, investigate, research, ~(ad)o exploration, etc.

esprim/i express, ~o expression

est/as am, is, are, ~i to be, kio ~as? what's wrong?, ~onta, ~ont(ec)o future, for~o absence

establ/i establish, ~o establishment

estim/i esteem, think well of, ~ata Sinjoro Dear Sir, mal~i despise, mal~o contempt

esting/i extinguish, put out (light, fire, etc.)

-estr/ (suffix denoting chief person; see p. 212) ~o leader, chief, "boss," ~i head up, ~aro board of directors

estrad/o platform, stage

eŝafod/o scaffold (for executions)

-et/ (suffix denoting diminution; see p. 104) ~a tiny, et/o Greek 7th letter η [eta], capital form Η, numeric value 8 antaŭan, sekvantan

etaĝ/o story, floor, tri~a 3-storied, ter~o ground floor

etap/o stage in a process or trip

etend/i extend, stretch out (transitive verb.)

etern/a eternal, ~(ec)o eternality, La Eternulo The Lord

etik/o ethic(s), ~a ethical

etiked/o label

etiket/o etiquette

etos/o atmosphere, mood (of a place, etc.)

Eŭrop/o Europe, ~a European

evaku/i evacuate (transitive verb.)

evangeli/o gospel, ~a evangelical

event/o event

eventual/o eventuality, contingency, ~e if the occasion arises, "if and when," ~a contingent, possible under certain circumstances, "if any"

evident/a obvious, evident

evit/i avoid, evade

evolu/i evolve, develop (intransitive verb.), ~(ad)o evolution, ~lando developing nation


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fab/o bean

fabel/o story, (fairy)tale

fabrik/o factory, ~i manufacture, fabricate

facil/a easy, ~igi facilitate, ~anima impulsive, flighty

faden/o thread

fajf/i whistle

fag/o beech

fajr/o fire, ~ero spark, ~ilo lighter, ~aĵo fireworks, ~ujo ~box, donu al mi ~on give me a light

fak/o compartment, pigeonhole, department, speciality, ~ulo specialist, expert, ~aro files (cabinet, etc.)

fakt/o fact, ~a factual, ~e in fact

faktur/o, ~i invoice

fakultat/o faculty (university, etc.)

fal/i fall (down), drop (intransitive verb.), ~igi drop (transitive verb.), ~eti stumble

falĉ/i mow, cut (hay, etc.), ~ilo scythe

fals/a false, ~igi falsify, ~aĵo counterfeit

fam/o fame, repute; hearsay, ~a famous, bon~a of good repute

famili/o family

fanatik/a fanatical

fand/i melt (transitive verb.)

fanfar/o fanfare, flourish

fanfaron/i brag

fantazi/o fantasy, ~a fantastic, of fantasy

fantom/o ghost, phantom, ~i haunt

far/i make, do, ~o deed, ~iĝi be(come)(made); bon~a abundant, generous, (for far, far', fare de see p. 293)

farb/i, ~o paint (house, etc.)

farĉ/i stuff (cooking), ~o stuffing

farm/i, ~o farm, ~igi farm out, ~isto farmer (properly refers to working land for another)

fart/i fare, kiel vi ~as? how are you? bon~o well-being

farun/o flour, meal, ~aĵo pastry; bakery item (any food made from flour)

fasad/o facade, "front"

fascin/i fascinate, ~a fascinating

fask/o bundle, sheaf

fatal/o (ill) fate, ~a ill-fated

faŭk/o jaws, maw, ~i gape, yawn

favor/o, ~i favor, ~a favorable, advantageous, ~ata favorite, ~koreco mercy

faz/o phase

fe(in)/o, ~a fairy

febr/o fever, ~a feverish, ~i have a fever

Februar/o February; antaŭan, sekvantan

federaci/o federation

federal/a federal

fek/i defecate, ~(aĵ)o excrement, dung

fekund/a fertile

fel/o fur, hide, skin (animal)

feliĉ/a happy, ~(ec)o happyness

femur/o thigh

fend/i split (transitive verb.), ~(aĵ)o crack, crevice

fenestr/o window, ~umo shutter

feniks/o phoenix

fenomen/o phenomenon, ~a phenomenal

fer/o, ~a iron, ~vojo railway

ferdek/o deck (ship, etc.)

feri/o holiday, la ~oj vacation

ferm/i close (transitive verb.), ~iĝi close (intransitive verb.), mal~i open

ferment/i ferment, ~ilo yeast, leaven, ~aĵo "starter" dough

feroc/a fierce

fervor/o zeal, fervor, ~a zealous, ~i be zealous

fest/i celebrate, ~o celebration, party

festen/o banquet, feast

feŭd/o fief, ~a feudal, ~ulo vassal

fi! shame! ~rakonto dirty story, ~fama of ill repute (see p. 277)

fi/o Greek 21st letter φ [phi], capital form Φ, numeric value 500, antaŭan, sekvantan

fianĉ(in)/o fiance(e)

fiask/o fiasco, failure, ~i fail

fibol/o safety pin

fibr/o fiber

fid/o faith, trust, ~i (je) have faith (in), rely on, ~inda trustworthy, reliable, mem~a confident, self-assured

fidel/a faithful

fier/a proud, ~o pride, ~i (pri) be proud (of)

figur/o figure; representation, image, diagram, ~i represent, depict, ~a figurative, ~anto extra (performer in a play, etc.)

fikci/o fiction, ~a fictional, fictitious

fiks/i make fast, attach, determine, fix (incl. photography),~a fixed

fil/o son, ~ino daughter

filatel(i)/o philately (stamp-collecting)

fili/o branch, affiliate, ~igi, iĝi affiliate

filik/o fern

film/o film

filozof/o philosopher, ~i philosophize, ~io philosophy

filtr/i, ~ilo filter

fin/i finish, end (transitive verb.), ~o end, ~aĵo ending, ~a final, ~e finally, at last, fin~fine at long last, ~iĝi end up, come to the end, ~stacio end-of-the-line

financ/o, ~i finance, ~a financial

fingr/o finger, dik~o thumb, pied~o toe, ~ingo thimble, ~umi finger, handle

finn/o Finn, ~a ~ish, ~ujo, ~io, ~lando Finland

firm/a firm, stable, ~(a)o a firm (commercial business)

fiŝ/o, ~i fish, ~kapti go ~ing

fizik/o physics, ~a physical

fizionomi/o physiognomy (face)

fjord/o fjord, inlet

flag/o flag, banner

flagr/i flare (up), ek~i burst into flames, ~eti flicker

flam/o, ~i flame, ~kapa hot-headed

flan/o any flat, thin pastry (pancake, etc.)

flanel/o, ~a flannel

flank/o side, ~a side, incidental, ~en to the side, ~e(n) de alongside, de~iĝi go astray, get off the subject, ~okupo sideline, unu~a unilateral

flar/i smell (with nose)

flat/i flatter, ~(ad)o ~y

flav/a, ~o yellow

fleg/i nurse, tend to, ~ist(in)o nurse

flegm/o phlegm; indifference, ~a passive, stolid, indifferent

fleks/i bend (transitive verb.), ~ebla flexible

flik/i patch (up), mend, ~aĵo patch

flirt/i flutter, flit; flirt

flor/o, ~i flower, bloom, ek~i come into bloom

flos/o raft, ~i float

flu/i flow, ~o current, stream, ~a fluent, ~aĵo fluid, ~linia streamlined, super~a overflowing; superfluous

flug/i fly, ~o flight, ~ilo wing, ~haveno airport, ~maŝino aircraft, ~folio flier (leaflet)

fluid/a, ~(aĵ)o liquid

flus/o, ~a flood (tide), mal~a, mal~o ebb

flustr/i, ~o whisper

foir/o fair (market)

foj/o time, occasion, ~a occasional, ~e on occasion, once, sometimes, unu~e on one occasion, one time, unua~e for the first time, kelk~e several times

fojn/o hay, ~amaso ~stack

fok/o seal (animal)

fokus/o focus

foli/o leaf, sheet (paper), ~aro foliage, ~umi leaf through

folklor/o folklore

fon/o background

fond/i found, establish, ~aĵo foundation

fondus/o fund

fonetik/a phonetic, ~o ~s

fonograf/o cylinder phonograph

font/o source, spring, ~i spring, well up, ~oplumo fountain pen

fontan/o fountain

for away, ~a distant, ~igi remove, get rid of, ~iri go away, ~preni take away, ~lasi leave, abandon, ~manĝi eat up, ~esti be absent, ~permeso furlough, leave; ~turni turn away

forges/i forget

fork/o fork

form/o, ~i form, shape, re~i reform, ali~igi, trans~i transform, unu~a uniform

formal/a formal

formik/o ant, ~i feel "pins and needles"

formul/o formula, ~i formulate, ~aro blank, form (to be filled in)

forn/o stove, oven, furnace, kiln

fort/a strong, ~(ec)o strength, force, (pli)~igi fortify, ~ostreĉo exertion, per~aĵ/i rape, per~i violate, per~o violence, super~i prevail over,

fortik/a sturdy, robust, ~aĵo fortification

Fortun/o Fortune

forum/o forum

fos/i dig, ~aĵo pit, hole, ditch, etc., ~ilo spade, sub~i undermine, subvert, sub~a subversive

fosfor/o phosphorus

fosforesk/a phosphorescent, ~i glow in the dark

fost/o post, stake, stanchion (any such vertical support)

fot(ograf)/i photograph, ~isto ~er, fot(ografaĵ)o photo

frag/o strawberry

fragment/o fragment, ~a ~ary

frak/o evening dress, "tails"

frakas/i shatter, smash

frakci/o fraction

fraksen/o ash (tree)

framason/o (free)mason, ~a masonic

framb/o raspberry

franc/o Frenchman, ~a French, ~ujo, ~io France

frand/i relish, eat (some delicacy) for pleasure, ~aĵo tidbit, delicacy

franĝ/o fringe

frap/i hit, knock, ~eti tap

frat/o brother, ~ino sister

fraŭd/i defraud, swindle

fraŭl/o bachelor, ~ino unmarried woman, Miss

fraz/o sentence

frekvent/i frequent, visit regularly

fremd/a foreign, strange, ~ulo foreigner, stranger

frenez/a crazy, insane, ~i rave, act crazy, ~iĝi go crazy, ~ulo lunatic, ~ulejo insane asylum

freŝ/a fresh, recent, mal~a stale, re~igi refresh

frid/a frigid, cold, ~igi refrigerate, ~ujo refrigerator

fripon/o crook, cheat(er), ~i do something crooked, cheat (intransitive verb.), pri~i cheat (transitive verb.)

frit/i fry (transitive verb.)

frivol/a frivolous, ~o frivolity

friz/i curl, "do" (hair), ~o hair-do, ~isto hairdresser

fromaĝ/o cheese

front/o (battle)front, frontage, (al)~i face

frost/o, ~a freezing cold, ~igi freeze, ~igilo freezer, ~ovundo frostbite

frot/i rub, ~(ad)o friction

fru/a early, mal~a late, mal~i be late, pli mal~e later (on)

frukt/o fruit, ~i bear fruit, ~odona, ~oporta fruitful

frunt/o forehead

frustr/i frustrate

ftiz/o consumption, tuberculosis, or other lung disease

fuĝ/i flee, run away

ful/o cloth, ~isto fuller, wool-cleaner

fulg/o soot

fulm/o lightning

fum/o, ~i smoke, ~tubo ~stack, ne fumi no smoking, odor~aĵo incense

fund/o bottom, foundation, ĝis~a thoroughgoing

fundament/a fundamental, ~o foundation

funebr/i mourn, ~a ~ful, ~o ~ing, ~aĵoj funeral services

funel/o, ~i funnel

fung/o mushroom, fungus

funkci/i function, "work," ~o function, ~ulo functionary, mal~(iĝ)i be/go on the blink, malfunction

funt/o pound

furioz/a furious

furor/o hit, craze, an "in thing," ~i be a hit, be "in," ~libro bestseller

furz/i, ~o fart

fusil/o rifle

fuŝ/i bungle, botch, "screw up"

fut/o foot (12 inches)

futbal/o soccer, usona ~o football


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gabardin/o gabardine

gael/a Gaelic

gaj/a cheerful, merry, mal~a sad, dreary

gajn/i gain, earn, win

gal/o gall, bile

galeri/o gallery

galjon/o galloon, gold braid; stripe (uniform)

galop/i, ~o gallop

galoŝ/o galosh, overshoe

gam/o gamut, scale, key (music), or Greek 3d letter γ [gamma], capital form Γ, numeric value 3, antaŭan, sekvantan

gamb/o whole leg (see p. 278)

gangren/o gangrene

gangster/o gangster, hoodlum

gant/o glove, mitten

gap/i gape, gawk, look about stupidly

garaĝ/o garage, ~i put away (car), dock (boat)

garanti/o, ~i guarantee, warrant, ~aĵo pledge (pawn), security (loan), ~ulo hostage

gard/i guard, watch over, sin~i take care, sin~ema cautious, careful, ~u vin! look out! (military: "Atten-tion!")

gargar/i gargle; rinse (dishes, etc.)

garn/i garnish, trim, fit out

garnizon/o garrison

gast/o guest, ~i be a guest, receive hospitality, stay with, ~igi entertain, put (somebody) up, ~iganto host, ~ama hospitable, ~ameco hospitality, ~ejo inn, hostel

gazet/o gazette, periodical, (small) magazine, ~aro press

gazon/o lawn

ge/ (prefix denoting both sexes; see p. 167)

gencian/o gentian

gener/i generate, beget, ~a genital

generaci/o generation

general/o general (military)

geni/o genius, ~a ingenious, ~ulo genius

gent/o clan, race, ethnic group

genu/o knee, ~(iĝ)i kneel

geograf/o geographer

geografi/o geography

geolog/o geologist

geologi/o geology

german/o, ~a German, ~ujo, ~io ~y

gest/o, ~i gesture, ~lingvo sign language

giĉet/o window (ticket-seller's, bank, etc.)

gigant/o giant, ~a gigantic

gimel ג Hebrew 3d letter, numeric value 3, antaŭan, sekvantan

gimnazi/o secondary school (see p. 258)

gingiv/o gum (mouth)

gips/o gypsum, plaster of Paris

girland/o garland, wreath

gist/o yeast

gitar/o guitar

glaci/o ice, ~a icy, ~aĵo ~cream, ~monto ~berg, ~ejo glacier

glad/i iron (clothes), ~ilo iron, ~otabulo ~ing board

glas/o glass (also plastic, metal, etc., for drinking)

glat/a smooth, ~igi (make) smooth, ~umi pet, rub soothingly, stroke

glav/o sword, ~ingo scabbard

glazur/o, ~i glaze (pottery)

glis/i glide (through air), ~ilo glider, sailplane, pend~ilo hang-glider

glit/i slide, slip, ~kuri, ~(kur)ilo skate, ~(ig)a slippery, ~pilko hockey

glob/o globe; ball (billiard, bowling, etc.); ball-bearing; ~eto marble; corpuscle, ~krajon/o ballpoint pen, ~lud(ad)o bowling, ~trotulo globe-trotter, ter~o the globe (earth)

glor/o glory, ~a glorious, ~i glorify (transitive verb.), ~kanto paean

glos/o a gloss, ~aro glossary

glu/i glue, stick (transitive verb.), ~(aĵ)o glue, ~marko sticker, al~iĝi become fond of

glut/i swallow, en~i swallow up, engulf, ~egi gulp down

golf/o gulf, bay; golf

gorĝ/o throat

goril/o gorilla

grac/o grace (of God)

graci/a graceful, ~(ec)o grace(fulness), mal~a awkward

grad/o degree, grade, (laŭ)~a gradual

graf/o count, ~lando ~y (in Europe)

grafik/o graphic arts, ~a graphic, ~aĵo graph

grajn/o grain

grak/i caw, croak

gram/o gram (weight)

gramatik/o grammar

gramofon/o phonograph, record-player

granat/o pomegranate

grand/a big, great, ~ega huge, mal~a small, ~(ec)o size, po~e wholesale, ~anima magnanimous, pli~igi enlarge

gras/o grease, fat, ~a greasy, fatty, ~i grease

grat/i scratch

gratul/i congratulate, ~o congratulation

grav/a important, serious, ne ~as it doesn't matter

graved/a pregnant, ~iĝi conceive

gravit/o gravity

gravur/i engrave, ~(aĵ)o engraving

greg/o flock, herd

grek/o, ~a Greek, ~ujo, ~io Greece

gren/o grain (of wheat, etc.) , ~ejo granary

grenad/o grenade

gril/o cricket (insect)

grimac/o, ~i grimace

grimp/i climb

grinc/i grind, gnash (teeth), grate, creak

grip/o flu, influenza

griz/o, ~a gray

groŝ/o groschen (small coin)

grot/o grotto, cave

grotesk/a grotesque

gru/o crane (bird, machine)

grumbl/i grumble, growl

grund/o ground, soil

grup/o group

gruz/o gravel, grit

guberni/o province (E. Europe)

gudr/o, ~i tar

gulaŝ/o goulash, stew

gulden/o guilder (Dutch money)

gum/i erase, ~o ~r, gum, maĉ~o chewing gum

gurd/o hurdy-gurdy, barrel organ, ~isto organ grinder, ~ita hackneyed, "corny"

gust/o taste, ~i taste (intransitive verb.), ~igi season, flavor, ~umi taste (food, etc.), bon~o good taste, bon~a tasty, sen~a tasteless, ~umo (sense of) taste (see p.228).

gut/o drip, drop, ~i drip, ~eto droplet

guvern/i teach privately, coach, ~isto tutor, ~istino governess

gvardi/o guard (elite military corps, not sentry)

gvat/i spy on, keep an eye on, ~sekvi shadow, "tail"

gvid/i guide, lead, show the way, ~ilo guide-book, ~isto guide


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ĝangal/o jungle

ĝarden/o garden

ĝem/i groan, moan

ĝemel/o, ~a twin

ĝen/i bother, trouble, disturb, sen~a free and easy, without ceremony, sin~a shy, self-conscious

ĝendarm/o gendarme, patrolman

ĝeneral/a general

ĝenr/o genre

ĝentil/a polite, courteous, well brought up

ĝerm/o germ (beginning of growth), ~i ~inate

ĝi it, ~a ~s

ĝib/o hump, ~(hav)a hunch-backed, ~ulo hunchback

ĝin/o gin (drink)

ĝir/i endorse (check, etc.), ~o ~ment, ~anto ~r, ~ato ~e

ĝis until, ĝis la revido so long, goodbye, ĝis morgaŭ until tomorrow, by tomorrow, ĝis! So long!

ĝoj/i be glad, ~(ec)o gladness, joy, ~a glad, mal~a sad, mal~o sorrow, sadness, ~igi make (someone) glad

ĝu/i enjoy, delight in

ĝust/a right, exact, ~e just, exactly, ~atempe at the right time, (al)~igi put right, adjust, mal~a wrong, mal~igi make wrong, maladjust


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ha! ah! Ha lo? Hello? (telephone)

Hag/o The Hague

hajl/o hail, ~ero ~stone

hak/i chop, hack, ~ilo axe, ~eti mince, dice, chop (food), ~viando hamburger meat

hal/o hall (great room)

haladz/o fume(s), gassy odor, ~a fumy, gassy, ~i fume, give off a noxious odor

halt/i come to a halt, ~o stop, bus~ejo busstop, ~igi stop (transitive verb.), ~ostreko hyphen

hant/i haunt

har/o a hair, ~oj, ~aro hair

hard/i harden, temper

harem/o harem

harmoni/o harmony, ~a harmonious, ~i harmonize

harp/o harp

haŝiŝ/o hashish, marijuana

haŭt/o skin, sen~igi skin

hav/i have, mal~i lack, ~igi procure, get, ~ebla available, en~o contents, nemal~ebla indispensable

haven/o harbor, port

hazard/o chance, "luck of the draw," ~e by chance, ~a random, chance

he! hey! or he ה Hebrew 5th letter, numeric value 5, antaŭan, sekvantan

hebre/o, ~a Hebrew, Jew(ish)

heder/o ivy

heĝ/o hedge

hejm/o home, ~e at home, ~eca ~y

hejt/i heat; stoke, ~ilo heater, ~aĵo fuel

hel/a bright, clear, light(colored), mal~a dark

helebor/o hellebore

helic/o helix, propeller

helik/o snail

help/i help, ~o aid, unua ~o first aid, ~a auxiliary, ~ema ~ful, mal~i hinder

hemisfer/o hemisphere

hen/i whinny

hepat/o liver

herb/o grass, ~ejo ~y place, meadow

hered/i inherit, ~aĵo ~ance, ~igi bequeath, leave

herez/o heresy, ~a heretical, ~ulo heretic

hero/o hero, ~a ~ic, ~ino ~ine

heroin/o heroin

herold/o, ~i herald

herpet/o herpes

hezit/i hesitate, ~o hesitation

hieraŭ yesterday [antaŭan, sekvantan], antaŭ~ day-before-yesterday, ~a of yesterday

higien/o hygiene, ~a hygienic

himn/o hymn, anthem

hind/o, ~a Indian (Asia), ~ujo, ~io India

hindu/o, ~a Hindu

hipnot/o hypnotic trance, ~igi hypnotize, ~isto hypnotist

hipokrit/i dissemble, ~a hypocritical, ~ulo hypocrite

hipotez/o hypothesis, ~a hypothetical, ~i hypothesize

hirt/i bristle (hair, etc.), ~a bristling, untidy, standing on end, ~igi tousle

hirund/o swallow (bird)

his/i hoist, run up (flag, etc.), ~ilo halyard

hisop/o hyssop

hispan/o Spaniard, ~a Spanish, ~ujo, ~io, ~lando Spain

histeri/o hysteria, ~a hysterical

histori/o history, story

hmm! hmm!

ho! oh!

hobi/o hobby

hoboj/o oboe

hodiaŭ today [antaŭan, sekvantan], ~a present-day, la ~a tempo nowadays

hoj! ahoy!

hok/o, ~a hook

hoke/o hockey

hola! hey, there! hold on!

Holand/o Holland, ~ano ~er, Dutchman, ~a Dutch

hom/o human being, "man," ~aro mankind, humanity, ~amaso crowd

honest/a honest

honor/i, ~o honor

hont/i be ashamed, ~o shame, ~a ashamed, ~igi put to shame, ~inda shameful, ~e al... shame on...

hor/o hour, time (of day), ~aro time-table, schedule (bus, etc.)

horde/o barley

horizont/o horizon

horizontal/a horizontal

horloĝ/o clock, watch, brak~ wrist-watch

horor/o horror, ~i be horrified

hospital/o hospital

hotel/o hotel

hu! boo!

huf/o hoof, ~fero horseshoe

human/a humane, ~isto humanist

humid/a humid, moist, damp

humil/a humble, ~eco humility

humor/o humor (mood, temper)

humur/o humor (wit), ~a ~ous

hund/o dog, ~a canine

hungar/o, ~a Hungarian, ~ujo, ~io/-lando Hungary

hura! hurrah! ~i, ~o cheer

hurl/i, ~o howl


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ĥaos/o chaos, ~a chaotic

ĥemi/o chemistry, ~isto chemist (preferred form: kemio, etc.)

ĥet ח [unicode “het”] Hebrew 8th letter, numeric value 8, antaŭan, sekvantan

ĥimer/o chimera, ~a chimerical

ĥin/o, ~a Chinese (preferred form: ĉino, etc.)

ĥi/o Greek 22d letter χ [chi], capital form Χ, numeric value 600, antaŭan, sekvantan

ĥirurg/o surgeon, ~a surgical, ~io surgery (the science)

ĥoler/o cholera

ĥor/o choir, chorus, ~ejo choir loft


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i- (forms correlative; see p. 127)

-id/ (suffix denoting offspring; see p. 212), ~aro descendants

ide/o idea

ideal/o, ~a ideal, ~isto idealist

ident/o identity, ~a identical, ~igi identify

ideografi/o picture writing

ideologi/o ideology

idiom/o tongue, language

idiot/o idiot, ~a ~ic, ~eco idiocy

idiotism/o idiom

idol/o idol, ~ano ~ator

-ig/ (suffix denoting cause; see pp. 103, 201), ~i cause (to be), make, dis~i separate, divide, el~i pull

ignor/i ignore

-iĝ/ (suffix denoting becoming; see pp. 117, 208), ~i become, "get", dis~i scatter, disperse

iks/o the letter X, ~radioj X-rays antaŭan, sekvantan

-il/ (suffix denoting instrument; see p. 117), ~o tool

ileks/o holly

ili they, ~a their

ilumin/i illuminate, enlighten

ilustr/i illustrate, ~aĵo illustration

iluzi/o illusion, ~a misleading, ~i delude, ~isto magician, sen~igi set (someone) straight, sen~iĝi become disillusioned

imag/i imagine, ~o imagination

imit/i imitate, ~(ad)o, ~aĵo imitation

imperi/o empire, ~estro emperor, ~ismo imperialism, ~isto imperialist

imperialism/o imperialism

impertinent/a impertinent, ~eco impertinence, ~ulo boor

impet/o rapid or strong forward movement, ~i move forward with great energy

implic/i imply

implik/i implicate, entangle

impon/i impress forcibly, strike, ~a imposing

impost/o, ~i tax, ~isto tax collector, revenue agent, ~ebla subject to tax

impres/o impression, ~i make an impression on, ~ebla, ~iĝema ~able

impuls/o impulse, impetus, ~i impel

imun/a immune

-in/ (suffix denoting feminine; see p. 82), ~o, ~a female

inaŭgur(aci)/i inaugurate, ~o inauguration, ~a inaugural

incendi/o conflagration, fire, ~a incendiary

incens/o incense

incit/i incite, provoke, excite, ~eti tease

-ind/ (suffix denoting worth; see p. 154), ~a worthy

indeks/o, ~i index (by alphabet)

indian/o, ~a (American) Indian

indiferent/a indifferent; immaterial

indign/i be indignant

indiĝen/o, ~a native

indik/i indicate, ~o indication

individu/o, ~a individual

indulg/i indulge, be lenient with, spare

industri/o industry, ~a industrial, ~isto industrialist

inert/a inert

infan/o child, ~(ec)a ~ish

infanteri/o infantry

infekt/i infect, ~o ~ion, sen~igi dis~

infer/o hell, ~a infernal

infest/i infest, ~o ~ation

inflaci/o inflation (finance)

influ/o, ~i influence

inform/i inform, make known, ~(aĵ)o information, ~iĝi find out, be advised, ~ado publicity

-ing/ (suffix denoting holder or socket), glav~o scabbard, kandel~o candlestick, fingr~o thimble, ~o socket, holder

ingven/o groin

inĝenier/o engineer

iniciat/i initiate (a thing), start

injekt/i inject, ~ilo (hypodermic) syringe

ink/o ink, ~ujo well

inkandesk/a incandescent

inklin/o inclination, disposal (toward), ~i be inclined (toward something)

inkluziv/i include, ~a inclusive, ~e inclusively, ~e (+ accusative), ~e de including

inkub/o incubus; nightmare, ~a nightmarish

insekt/o insect

insid/a insidious, ~o snare, ~i set a snare or trap (for)

insign/o badge; coat-of-arms

insist/i insist

inspekt/i inspect, ~(ad)o ~ion, ~isto ~or

inspektor/o = inspektisto

inspir/i inspire, ~a inspiring, ~(aĵ)o inspiration

instanc/o court, competent official authority

instig/i urge, spur on, impel, encourage to, sub~/i incite

instinkt/o instinct

instituci/o institution

institut/o institute

instru/i instruct, teach, ~isto teacher

instrukci/o instructions, directions

instrument/o instrument

insul/o island, duon~o peninsula, ~aro archipelago

insult/i "cuss out," insult, ~o verbal abuse

integr/a integral

intelekt/o intellect, ~a, ~ulo ~ual

inteligent/a intelligent, ~o intelligence

intenc/i intend, ~o intention, ~a intentional, ~e on purpose

intendant/o superintendent, steward, ~ino matron

intens/a intense, intensive

inter between, among, ~nacia international, ~ŝanĝi exchange, ~rompi interrupt, ~paroli converse, ~kompreno mutual understanding, ~veni intervene

interes/i, ~o interest, ~a ~ing, ~iĝi take an interest (in); see p. 287

intermit/a intermittent, ~i occur intermittently, go on and off

intern/a internal, inner, ~o inside, interior

interpret/i interpret, ~o ~ation, ~isto ~or

interpunkci/o punctuation, ~i punctuate

interval/o interval

intervju/i, ~o interview

intest/o intestine

intim/a intimate, close

intransitive verb.ig/i intrigue, ~o plot

inund/i, ~o flood

invad/i invade, ~o invasion

invalid/o disabled person, ~a disabled

invent/i invent, ~aĵo ~ion, ~isto ~or

inventar/o inventory

invers/a the other way around, reversed, ~e vice-versa

invit/i invite, ~o invitation

iom a little bit, somewhat, rather; iom post iom little by little; iomete a little bit

ipsilon/o the letter Y antaŭan, sekvantan

ir/i go, al~i approach, antaŭen~i go forward, ĉirkaŭ~i go around, circumvent, ek~i start out, el~i go out, exit, El~o Exodus, en~i enter, go in, for~i leave, go away, re~i go back, return, sub~i go down, set (sun), supren~i go up, ascend, trans~i cross, el~ejo exit, way out, pied~i go on foot, pied~anto pedestrian

Iran/o Iran, ~a, ~ano ~ian

Irland/o Ireland, ~a Irish, ~ano Irishman

ironi/o irony, ~a ironic

Islam/o Islam, ~a ~ic

Island/o Iceland, ~a ~ic

-ism/ (suffix denoting an ism; see p. 208)

-ist/ (suffix denoting occupation; see p. 82)

ital/o, ~a Italian, ~ujo, ~io Italy

izol/i isolate, seclude, insulate, ~a isolated, secluded, ~ilo insulator

Izrael/o Israel, ~a, ~ano ~i


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ja indeed; emphatic particle

jad/o, ~a jade

jaguar/o jaguar

jaĥt/o yacht

jak/o jacket

jakt/o = jaĥto

jam already, jam ne no longer, jam nun right now

Januar/o January; antaŭan, sekvantan

japan/o, ~a Japanese, ~ujo, ~io, ~lando Japan

jar/o year, (ĉiu)~a annual, ~cento century, ~deko decade, super~o leap year

jard/o yard (3 feet)

Jav/o Java

jaz/o jazz

je at, on, by, etc. (see p.152)

Jehov/o Jehovah

jen behold (calls attention to; see p. 117)

jen/o yen (Japanese money)

jes yes, ~i assent, say yes, ~o assent

Jesu/o, Jezu/o Jesus

jet/o jet plane

jid/a Yiddish

Joĉj/o Johnny

jod י [unicode “yod]” Hebrew 10th letter, numeric value 10, antaŭan, sekvantan

jod/o Iodine

jodl/i yodel

jog/o yoga

jogurt/o yoghurt

Johan/o John

jot/o jot, or Greek 9th letter ι [iota], capital form Ι, numeric value 10 antaŭan, sekvantan

ju... des... the... the... , ju pli granda, des pli bona the bigger the better

jubil/a jubilant, ~o jubilation, exultation, ~i exult

jubile/o, ~a jubilee

jud/o Jew, ~a ~ish, ~ismo Judaism

jug/o, ~i yoke

jugoslav/o, ~a Yugoslav(ian), ~ujo, ~io Yugoslavia

jugland/o walnut

juĝ/i, ~isto judge, ~o ~ment, ~ejo court(room), antaŭ~o prejudice

junk/o (botany) reed, rush

Jul/o Yule

Juli/o July; antaŭan, sekvantan

jun/a young, ~eco, ~ulo youth

jung/i, ~ilaro, ~aĵo harness

Juni/o June; antaŭan, sekvantan

jup/o skirt, sub~o petticoat

jur/o law (legal system or profession), jurisprudence, ~isto jurist

just/a just, fair, righteous, ~eco justice, righteousness

juvel/o jewel


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ĵaluz/a jealous, ~o ~y, ~i be jealous

ĵargon/o jargon

ĵaŭd/o Thursday; antaŭan, sekvantan

ĵazo = jazo

ĵet/i throw, ~kuboj dice, ~eti toss, ~ilo sling, dis~i scatter

ĵongl/i juggle, ~isto ~r

ĵur/i swear, ~o oath, ~ligi adjure, charge, beg of

ĵurnal/o newspaper, ~isto journalist

ĵus just (now), just before


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kaban/o cabin, hut, shack

kabared/o, kabaret/o cabaret

kabinet/o cabinet; room for study

kabl/o cable, ~gramo ~gram

kaĉ/o mush; mess

kadavr/o cadaver, corpse

kadr/o frame(work); cadre, en~igi frame

kaduk/a decayed, decrepit, dilapidated; (law) lapsed

kaf כ Hebrew 11th letter, final form or kaf sofit ך, numeric value 20, kaf sofit is used rarely as 500, antaŭan, antaŭan sofitan valeron, sekvantan, sekvantan sofitan valeron

kaf/o coffee, ~ejo cafe

kaftan/o caftan (Oriental garment)

kaĝ/o cage

kaj and; kaj... kaj... both... and...

kaj/o quay, platform

kajer/o exercise-book; folder

kajut/o cabin (ship, etc.)

kakt/o cactus

kal/o corn (feet)

kaldron/o cauldron, kettle, boiler

kalembur/o pun

kalendar/o calendar

kalik/o chalice, goblet

kalk/o lime, ~i, ~aĵo white-wash

kalkan/o heel (foot), ~umo heel (shoe)

kalkul/i calculate, count, figure, ~o calculation; bill (restaurant, store, etc.)

kalumni/i slander, libel, bad-mouth

kalson/o underpants, drawers, panties, ~eto briefs, bottom half of bikini

kalv/a bald

Kalvari/o Calvary

kamarad/o pal, buddy, comrade

kambi/o bill of exchange

kamel/o camel

kamen/o fireplace, hearth; ~tubo chimney, smokestack, ~breto mantel(piece)

kamer/o small room; dark-room

kamion/o truck, ~eto van

kamp/o field, ~aro countryside, ~ara rural, ~arano, ~ulo country-dweller, farmer, peasant, ~(um)i, ~loĝi camp out, ~isto outdoorsman

kampanol/o Canterbury bell, bellflower

kan/o cane, reed; calamus

Kanad/o Canada, ~a, ~ano Canadian

kanajl/o scoundrel, rogue, ~aro rabble, riff-raff

kanal/o canal, channel

kanap/o couch

kancer/o cancer; canker

kandel/o candle, ~ingo ~holder

kandidat/o candidate, ~i run for election

kanibal/o cannibal

Kanj/o Cathy

kanjon/o canyon

kanon/o cannon

kanot/o small open boat

kant/i sing, ~o song, ~aro songbook

kanzon/o chanson, light-hearted ballad

kaos/o chaos

kap/o head, ~jesi nod, ~nei shake one's head, ~turn(ig)a dizzy(ing)

kapabl/a capable

kapel/o chapel

kapital/o capital (money), ~isto ~ist

kapitan/o captain

kapitel/o capital (architecture)

kapitol/o capitol

kapitulac/i capitulate, surrender

kap/o Greek 10th letter κ [kappa], capital form Κ, numeric value 20 antaŭan, sekvantan

kaporal/o corporal

kapot/o hood (car); large coat with hood

kapr/o goat

kapric/o whim, ~a capricious

kapriol/i caper, frolic about

kapsul/o capsule; firing cap

kapt/i catch, capture, ~ilo snare, trap

kapuĉ/o hood, cowl

kar/a dear, ~ul(in)o darling

karaf/o carafe, decanter

karakter/o character, personality, nature

karakteriz/i characterize, ~a, ~aĵo characteristic

karapac/o carapace, protective shell

karavan/o caravan; group traveling together

karb/o coal, ~papero carbon paper

karcer/o jail cell

kares/i caress, fondle, stroke

karier/o career

karitat/o charity, ~a charitable

Karl/o Charles

karmezin/o, ~a crimson

karn/o flesh, ~a carnal

karnaval/o carnaval

karot/o carrot

kart/o card; menu, map

kartoĉ/o cartridge

karton/o cardboard

karusel/o merry-go-round, carousel

kas/o money box, till, cashier's stand; fund; ~isto cashier

kaserol/o casserole, saucepan

kaset/o, kased/o cassette

kask/o helmet

kastel/o castle

kastor/o beaver

kastr/i castrate

kaŝ/i hide, conceal, ~ema furtive, ~ludo hide-and-seek, mal~e openly, frankly, mal~i reveal

kaŝtan/o chestnut

kat/o cat, ~ido kitten

katalog/o, ~i catalog

Katarin/o Catherine

katastrof/o catastrophe, ~a catastrophic

katedr/o professorial chair or platform; pulpit

katedral/o cathedral

kategori/o category

katen/o, ~i fetter, shackle

katolik/o, ~a catholic, ~ismo ~ism

kaŭĉuk/o, ~a rubber

kaŭr/i crouch, squat, cower

kaŭz/o cause, reason, ~i cause

kav/o cavity, ~a hollow, concave

kavaleri/o cavalry

kavalir/o cavalier, knight

kavern/o cave, cavern, den

kaz/o case

kazern/o barracks

kazin/o casino

ke that (subordinate conjunction)

kel/o cellar, basement

kelk/a(j), ~e da some, a few, ~foje sometimes

kelner/o waiter

kern/o core, pit (fruit, etc.), nucleus

kerub/o cherub

kesit/o piece of money

kest/o chest, large box

ki- (forms correlative; see p. 127), ~maniere in what manner

kibuc/o kibbutz

kikar/o (Biblical) measure, talent, lid, round

kilometr/o kilometer

kimr/a Welsh, ~o ~man, ~ujo Wales

kin/o cinema, ~ejo movie theater

kiras/o armor

kirl/i stir, whirl, curl; froth, whip (food)

kirurg/o = ĥirurgo

kirurgi/o = ĥirurgio

kis/i, ~o kiss

kitel/o overalls, smock

klaĉ/i, ~o gossip

klak/i clap, rattle, make clicking sound

klar/a clear, plain, ~igi clarify, explain

klas/o class, en~igi classify

klasik/a classic

klaŭn/o clown

klav/o key (piano, typewriter, etc.), ~aro keyboard

kler/a learned, well-informed, cultured

klient/o client, customer, ~aro clientele

klimat/o climate, ~a climatic

klin/i (transitive verb.) bend, incline, tilt, de~i pervert, turn away from (cf. Sentencoj xvii.23)

kling/o (knife, etc.) blade

klinik/o clinic

kliŝ/o (printer's) cut, half-tone; (photo) negative, ~(aĵ)o cliche, stereotype

kloak/o sewer

klopod/i take steps, try (see p. 255)

klub/o club, society, ~ano club member

knab/o boy, ~(ec)a ~ish, ~ino girl

knar/i creak, grate, make screeching noise

kned/i knead

kobold/o imp, goblin

kobr/o cobra

kod/o code, (en)~igi encode, de~igi decode

kof ק, [unicode “qof”] Hebrew 19th letter, numeric value 100, antaŭan, sekvantan

kofero henna

kofr/o trunk, large suitcase, ~ujo trunk (of car)

kojn/o, ~i wedge

kok/o rooster, cock, ~ino hen, ~batalo cockfight, ~ido chick

kokain/o cocaine

kokcinel/o ladybug

koket/a coquettish, ~i flirt

kokon/o cocoon

kokos/o coconut

koks/o hip

koktel/o cocktail

kol/o neck, ~ringo necklace, ~umo collar

kolbas/o sausage

koleg/o colleague

kolegi/o college

kolekt/i collect, gather, ~iĝi gather together

kolektiv/o, ~a collective

koler/a angry, ~i be angry, ~iĝi get angry, ~o anger

kolizi/i collide, ~o collision

kolomb/o pigeon, dove, ~umi "bill and coo"

kolon/o pillar, (architecture) column

kolonel/o colonel

koloni/o colony, settlement, ~a colonial

kolor/o color, ~igi color, paint

kolos/a colossal, ~o colossus

kolport/i peddle, sell door-to-door

kolumn/o column (type, figures, soldiers, etc.)

kom/o comma

komand/i be in command

komb/i, ~ilo comb

kombin/i combine, ~aĵo combination

komedi/o comedy

komenc/i (transitive verb.) begin, ~o ~ning, ~iĝi begin (intransitive verb.), ~a initial

koment/i, ~o comment, ~aro ~ary

komerc/o commerce, business, ~i do business, ~isto merchant

komfort/o comfort, ~a ~able

komik/a comic(al)

komisar/o commissar

komisi/o errand, commission, ~i entrust with a task, ~ito commissioner

komitat/o committee

komiz/o clerk

komod/o dresser, chest of drawers

komodor/o commodore

kompakt/a compact

kompani/o company

kompar/i (transitive verb.) compare, ~o comparison, ~e comparatively

kompas/o compass

kompat/o compassion, pity, ~i have compassion on, pity, ~inda pitiful, "poor"

kompetent/a competent, ~ulo expert

kompil/i compile, ~(aĵ)o compilation

komplet/a complete, ~o set, suit (clothes, furniture, etc.), ~igi complete

komplez/o favor, ~(em)a kind, obliging, ~i do a favor

komplik/i complicate, ~a ~d

kompliment/o, ~i compliment

komplot/o plot, conspiracy

kompon/i compose (music), ~isto ~r, ~aĵo composition

kompost/i set in type

kompren/i understand, ~ebla ~able, ~ema ~ing, ~eble of course

komput/i compute, ~ilo = komputero

komputer/o computer

komun/a (in) common, shared, ~umo community, ~isto Communist

komuni/o Communion

komunik/i communicate, ~(aĵ)o communication

kon/i know (be acquainted), ek~ rudiment, ~ato acquaintance, ne~ata unknown, re~i recognize

koncept/o concept

koncern/i concern, ~a ~ed, in question

koncert/o concert

koncip/i conceive (a child)

konciz/a concise

kondamn/i condemn; sentence

kondiĉ/o condition, stipulation, ~i stipulate, set conditions

kondolenc/o condolences, ~i express condolences

konduk/i lead, conduct, take; drive (vehicle), ~isto driver

kondut/i behave, conduct oneself, ~o behavior, conduct

konekt/i connect up, plug in, ~o connection

konferenc/o conference

konfes/i confess, ~o ~ion, ~e admittedly, mal~i deny

konfid/i trust, confide, have confidence in

konfidenc/o a confidence, secret, ~a confidential

konfirm/i confirm, corroborate, ~o confirmation

konfisk/i confiscate

konflikt/o conflict

konform/i conform, ~a ~ing, ~iĝi conform, "shape up"

konfuz/i confuse, ~a ~d, jumbled up, ~o confusion

kongres/o congress, convention, ~i hold or attend a congress

kongru/a congruent, ~i coincide, fit together

konjak/o cognac, brandy

konjekt/i conjecture, surmise, ~o conjecture, guess(work)

konk/o shell (clam, snail, etc.)

konker/i conquer

konklud/o, ~i (come to a) conclusion, infer(ence)

konkret/a concrete (not abstract)

konkur/i compete, rival, ~(ad)o rivalry, (personal) competition

konkurenc/o (business, etc.) competition

konkurs/o contest

konsci/i be conscious/aware of, ~o consciousness, awareness, ~a conscious, aware, sen~a unconscious

konscienc/o conscience, ~a conscientious

konsekr/i, ~o consecrate, devote; consecration, devoted-one

konsekvenc/a consistent, ~o consistency, consequence, ne~a inconsistent

konsent/i consent, agree, ~o agreement, consent, ~ite OK, agreed

konserv/i conserve, keep, ~ema, (em)ulo conservative

konsider/i consider, ~inda ~able

konsil/o advice, counsel, ~i advise, ~anto counsellor, ~inda advisable

konsist/i consist, ~o ~ency, ~igi make up, constitute

konsol/i console, comfort, ~o consolation

konspir/i conspire, ~o conspiracy

konstant/a constant, permanent

konstat/i realize to be a fact, ascertain, take note

konstern/i dismay, appall, ~o consternation

konstip/i constipate, ~ita ~d

konstituci/o constitution, ~a ~al

konstru/i construct, build, ~aĵo building

konsul/o consul

konsult/i consult, ~o ~ation

konsum/i consume, use up, ~anto consumer

kont/o account (finance)

kontakt/i, ~o contact, fuŝ~o short circuit

kontant/o cash money, ~a, ~e in cash

konte/o county

kontent/a content, satisfied, pleased, ~igi satisfy, ~o contentment, satisfaction

kontinent/o continent, mainland

kontor/o (business) office

kontraband/i smuggle, ~isto ~r, ~o contraband, "hot goods"

kontrakt/o contract, ~i make a contract

kontralt/o contralto

kontrast/o, ~i contrast

kontraŭ against, across from, opposed to, in exchange for, ~e on the contrary, ~i oppose, ~stari withstand, stand up to, ~ulo opponent, ~vole against one's will, ~diri contradict

kontribu/i contribute, ~(aĵ)o contribution

kontrol/i check up on, audit, verify, supervise

kontur/o contour, outline

kontuz/o, ~i bruise

konven/i be appropriate, be suitable, ~a suitable, seemly, as it should be, mal~a unseemly, not fitting

konversaci/i converse, ~o conversation

konvink/i convince, persuade, ~o conviction, belief

konvuls/o convulsion

kopi/i, ~o copy (see p. 285)

kop/o archaic Greek letter “koppa,” ϙ, capital form Ϙ, now used for Greek numeric value 90, antaŭan valoron, sekvantan valoron

kor/o heart, ~a cordial, hearty; cardiac, ~ligita close, dear to the heart, ~tuŝa touching, moving, bon~eco kindness, favor~eco mercy

Koran/o Koran

korb/o basket

kord/o string (music), cord (anatomy)

Kore/o, ~a Korean, ~ujo, ~io Korea

korekt/i correct

korespond/i correspond, ~anto ~ent, pen-pal

koridor/o corridor, passage

korn/o horn (animal, etc.)

kornik/o crow

korp/o body

korporaci/o corporation

kort/o court(yard), ~ego, ~umo court (see p. 239)

korupt/i, ~ilo bribe

korv/o raven

kosm/o cosmos, ~a spaco outer space

kost/i, ~o cost, multe~a expensive

kostum/o costume; suit (clothes); outfit, what one is wearing

kot/o mud

kotiz/i subscribe to (publication, fund), ~o subscription; dues

koton/o cotton

koturn/o quail

kov/i sit (as hen), incubate, el~i hatch out

kovert/o envelope

kovr/i cover, ~ilo lid, cover, mal~i uncover, discover

krabr/o hornet

kraĉ/i spit

krad/o grill, grid, grate

krajon/o pencil

krak/i, ~o crack (sound), ~eti ~le

kramp/o, ~i clamp, staple, ~oj brackets, parentheses

kran/o faucet, tap

krani/o skull

kravat/o necktie

kre/i create, ~it(aĵ)o creature

kred/i believe, ~o belief, ~eble probably, ~ema credulous

kredit/o credit

krem/o cream

kremaci/o cremation, ~i cremate

kren/o horseradish

krepusk/o twilight

kresk/i (intransitive verb.) grow, ~igi grow (transitive verb.), raise, ~aĵo plant

krestomati/o chrestomathy (book of model readings)

kret/o chalk

krev/i (intransitive verb.) burst

kri/i cry out, shout, ~egi yell, ~signo exclamation point

kribr/i sift, ~ilo sieve

krim/o crime, ~a, ~ulo criminal

kripl/a crippled, infirm

kript/a cryptic, ~ografio cryptography

Krist/o Christ, ~ano ~ian, ~anismo ~ianity, ~nasko ~mas, ~(nask)arbo ~mas tree, a.K. — antaŭ ~o, B.C., before Christ, p.K. — post ~o, A.D., anno Domini, after Christ

kristal/o, ~a crystal

kritik/i criticize, ~o criticism

kriz/o crisis, emergency, (fin) depression, ~a critical

krizantem/-o chrysanthemum

kroĉ/i hook (onto), al~iĝi cling to, get caught on, ~ilo hook

krokodil/o crocodile, ~i speak one's national language among Esperantists

krom besides, apart from, ~e besides, ~a additional, ~tubo spare tire, ~virino concubine, krom se unless

kron/o, ~i crown, ~ado coronation

kronik/o chronicle, ~isto ~r, historian

kroz/i cruise

kruc/o, ~i cross, ~a crucial, ~umi crucify, ~osigni make the sign of the cross, ~vortenigmo crossword puzzle

kruĉ/o jug, pitcher

krud/a raw, crude, rough

kruel/a cruel, fierce

krur/o leg (see p. 278)

krut/a steep, abrupt

kser(ografi)/o xerography, ~a xerographic, ~okopio xerographic copy

ksi/o Greek 14th letter ξ [xi], capital form Ξ, numeric value 60 antaŭan, sekvantan

k.t.p. = kaj tiel plu etc.

ku/o the letter Q antaŭan, sekvantan

kub/o cube

Kub/o Cuba, ~a, ~ano ~n

kubut/o elbow

kudr/i sew, ~ero stitch, ~ilo needle, kun~(aĵ)o seam

kugl/o bullet

kuir/i cook, ~ejo kitchen

kuk/o cake, ~eto cup~

kukol/o cuckoo

kukum/o cucumber

kukurb/o pumpkin, squash, gourd, etc.

kul/o gnat

kuler/o spoon

kulis/o flat (theater), post la ~oj behind the scenes

kulp/o blame, fault, guilt, ~a guilty, ~igi blame, ~ulo culprit, sen~/o innocent, , sen~eco integrity

kultur/o culture, ~i cultivate

kun with, ~e together, ~veno, ~sido meeting, ~porti bring along, take, ~iĝi come together, ~igi unite (tr), join, ~ulo companion, ~labori cooperate, ~voki convoke, ~e kun together with, ĉi~e herewith

kunikl/o rabbit

kupe/o compartment (train), coupe (short wagon or car)

kupl/i couple (mechanics)

kupol/o cupola, dome

kupon/o coupon

kupr/o, ~a copper

kur/i run, ek~i start running, take to one's heels (Latin: curro, French: courir, English: courier)

kurac/i treat medically, ~ilo medicine, ~isto physician (Polish: kuracja, English: cure)

kuraĝ/o courage, ~a ~ous, brave, ~i dare, ~igi encourage

kurb/o curve, ~a ~d, ~igi bend

kurioz/a curious, quaint

kurs/o class (school), course

kurten/o curtain

kurz/o rate of exchange

kusen/o cushion, lit~o pillow

kuŝ/i lie, recline, ek~i, ~iĝi lie down, ~igi lay

kutim/o custom, habit, ~e ordinarily, ~i be in the habit of, al~iĝi become accustomed, get in the habit of

kuv/o tub, vat

kuz/o, ~ino cousin

kvadrat/o, ~a square

kvaker/o, ~a Quaker

kvalit/o quality

kvankam although

kvant/o quantity

kvar four, ~a, ~ono ~th, ~ope by fours. antaŭan, sekvantan

kvartal/o district, neighborhood (of town)

kvazaŭ as if, as though; in a way

kverel/i quarrel, wrangle

kverk/o, ~a oak(en)

kviet/a, ~o quiet, calm

kvin five, ~a, ~ono fifth. antaŭan, sekvantan

kvit/a paid up, free and clear, obligation satisfied; ~anc/o, ~i receipt


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la the

labor/i, ~o work, labor, ~ejo workplace, ~isto worker, laborer, el~i work out, kun~i cooperate, per~i earn, ~ema hardworking, mal~ema slothful

laboratori/o laboratory

lac/a tired, ~iĝi get tired

laĉ/o (shoe)lace

lad/o , ~a sheet metal, tin, tin plate, ~skatolo, en~igi can (food, etc.)

laf/o, ~a lava

lag/o lake

lagun/o lagoon

laik/a, ~o lay(man)

lak/o, ~i lacquer

laks/a loose (bowels), mal~a constipated, ~igilo laxative

lakt/o milk

laktuk/o lettuce

lam/a lame, ~i limp, ~bastono crutch

lambd/o Greek 11th letter λ [lambda], capital form Λ, numeric value 30 antaŭan, sekvantan

lamed ל Hebrew 12th letter, numeric value 30, antaŭan, sekvantan

lament/i wail, lament

lamp/o lamp

lan/o, ~a wool

lanc/o lance, spear, ~isto spearman, lancer

land/o land, country, ~strato highway, ~limo border, ekster~e abroad, (sam)~ano compatriot

lang/o tongue

lant/a (poetic word for ) slow

lantern/o lantern

lanug/o fluff, down

lapon/o, ~a Lapp, Laplander

lard/o bacon

larĝa wide, broad, mal~a narrow, laŭ~e crossways

larik/o larch

laring/o larynx, ~ito laryngitis

larm/o tear, ~i shed tears, weep

larv/o larva, grub

las/i leave, allow, let, for~i abandon, forsake, post~i leave behind, preter~i leave out, overlook

last/a last, ~atempe lately

lat/o lath, slat, ~kurteno Venetian blind

latin/a Latin, ~ida Romance

latrin/o latrine

latun/o, ~a brass

latv/o, ~a Latvian, ~io Latvia

laŭ according to, along, ~longe lengthwise, ~plaĉe as one pleases, ~vole as you wish, ~vorta literal, ~dire as is being said, ~moda fashionable, ~vide by sight, ~leĝa legal

laŭb/o bower, arbor

laŭd/i, ~o praise

laŭr/o laurel

laŭt/a (a)loud

lav/i wash (transitive verb.)

lavang/o avalanche

lecion/o lesson

led/o, ~a leather

leg/i read, ~aĵo ~ing matter, ~ebla legible, ~inda worth reading, ~scio reading ability

legend/o legend, (laŭ)~a legendary

legi/o legion

legitim/i legitimize, prove identity, ~ilo I.D.

legom/o vegetable

leĝ/o law, laŭ~a legal

leĝer/a (poetic word for ) light(weight)

lek/i lick

lekant/o marguerite, ~eto daisy

lekci/o, ~i lecture

lektor/o lector (title given teachers in some countries)

lens/o lens

lentug/o freckle

leon/o lion

leontod/o dandelion

leopard/o leopard

lepor/o hare, rabbit, ~hundo greyhound

lepr/o leprosy, ~ulo leper

lern/i learn, ~ejo school, ~olibro textbook

lert/a skillful, clever, dexterous, mal~a awkward

letargi/o lethargy

leter/o letter, ~kesto mailbox

leŭtenant/o lieutenant

lev/i lift, raise, ~iĝi arise, get up

li he, ~a his

Liban/o Lebanon, ~a Lebanese

liber/a free, ~tempo spare time, time off, ~vola voluntary, mal~ejo prison, mal~ulo prisoner

liberal/a liberal

libr/o book, ~eto ~let, ~(ovend)ejo ~store, ~otenado ~keeping, ~aro book collection (e.g., private library)

licenc/o licence

lift/o elevator

lig/i tie, bind, ~o league, connection, ~ilo bond, inter~o covenant, ĵur~i adjure, charge, beg of

lign/o wood, timber

liguri/o opal

liken/o tetter, psoriasis

likvid/i liquidate

likvor/o liquor

lilak/o lilac

lili/o lily

lim/o limit, boundary, ~igi limit, restrict

limak/o slug, snail

limonad/o lemonade

lin/o flax, ~aĵo linen, ~oleo linseed oil, ~oleumo linoleum

lingv/o language, ~isto linguist

lini/o line, ~ilo ruler, straightedge

lip/o lip, ~haroj moustache

Lisbon/o Lisbon

lisp/i lisp

list/o list, ~igi (make a) list

listel/o annulet, fillet, listel (architectural term)


lit/o bed, ~kovrilo blanket, ~tuko sheet, en~iĝi go to bed

litani/o litany

liter/o letter (alphabet), ~umi spell

literatur/o literature, ~a literary

litov/o, ~a Lithuanian, ~ujo, ~io Lithuania

litr/o liter

liturgi/o liturgy

liut/o lute

liver/i deliver, supply, furnish

lo! hey there! Ha lo Hello (telephone)

log/i lure, attract, al~a attractive, ~ilo, ~aĵo bait, de~i seduce, entice

logik/o logic, ~a ~al

loĝ/i live (dwell), lodge, ~ejo place to live, dwelling, ~anto inhabitant, ~antaro population

lojal/a loyal

lok/o location, place, spot, ~i locate, ~a local, sid~o seat, place to sit

lokomotiv/o locomotive

lokust/o grasshopper

long/a long, ~(ec)o length, de~e for a long time, laŭ~e lengthwise, mal~a short, mal~igi shorten, mal~igo abbreviation

longitud/o longitude

lorn/o field glass, binoculars

lot/i draw lots, ~umi allot

loteri/o lottery, raffle

lotus/o lotus

lu/i rent, ~ebla for rent, ~igi rent out, ~anto renter, tenant, ~prezo rent money

lucern/o hanging (e.g., temple) lamp

lud/i play, ~o game, ~ilo toy

luk/o skylight; porthole

luks/a luxurious, deluxe, ~aĵo, ~(ec)o luxury

lukt/i wrestle, struggle

lul/i lull, rock (baby), ~ilo cradle, ~kanto lullaby

lum/o light, ~i shine, ~turo ~house, ~ilo lamp

lun/o moon, ~a lunar

lunĉ/o lunch, snack

lund/o Monday; antaŭan, sekvantan

lup/o wolf

lupe/o magnifying glass

lustr/o chandelier

lut/i, ~o solder


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mac/o matzoh, unleavened bread

maĉ/i chew, re~ulo ruminant, ~gumo ~ing gum

magazen/o department store; warehouse

magazin/o popular magazine covering a variety of subjects

magi/o magic, ~a ~al

magistr/o Master (of Arts, etc.)

magnet/o magnet, ~a ~ic, ~igi ~ize, ~ismo ~ism

magnetofon/o tape recorder (sound)

magnetoskop/o video recorder

magr/a meager, skinny, skimpy

maĥ/o Mach (aerospace)

maiz/o corn

Maj/o May; antaŭan, sekvantan

majest/a majestic, ~(ec)o majesty

major/o major (rank)

majoritat/o majority

majstr/o maestro, master (of an art, trade, etc.)

majuskl/o capital letter

makler/i act as middleman, ~isto broker, ~aĵo brokerage, commission

makrop/o kangaroo

maksimum/o, ~a maximum, ~e at the most

makul/o, ~i spot, stain

makzel/o jaw(bone)

mal/ (prefix denoting direct opposite; see p. 82) ~e on the contrary, ~altaĵo plain, flatland

malari/o malaria

maleol/o ankle

malgraŭ in spite of

malic/a malicious, mischievous

malplenec/o emptiness

mam/o breast, teat, ~besto, ~ulo mammal, ~nutri suckle, ~pinto nipple (cf. cico), ~zono bra

man/o hand, ~plato palm, ~premi shake hands, ~sak(et)o handbag, ~signi wave, ~umo cuff

mandat/o mandate, poŝt~o money order

mangostan/o mangosteen

manĝ/i eat, ~o meal, ~aĵo food

Manĝuri/o Manchuria

manier/o manner, way, ia~e in some manner, in any manner, , kia~e in what manner

manifest/o manifest, ~i manifest

manifestaci/o demonstration (politics), ~i demonstrate

manik/o sleeve

manipul/i manipulate, handle

mank/i be lacking, be missing, ~o lack, shortage, shortcoming

manovr/i, ~o maneuver

mansard/o attic, garret

mantel/o cloak, mantle

manuskript/o manuscript

map/o map, ~aro atlas

mar/o sea, ~armeo navy, ~bordo shore, seaside, ~isto sailor, ~ondo ocean wave

marĉ/o marsh, swamp

marĉand/i haggle, bargain

mard/o Tuesday; antaŭan, sekvantan

Margaret/o, ~a Margaret

marĝen/o margin

Mari/a Mary, ~o Mary; Marius, Mario

marionet/o marionette, puppet

mark/i mark, ~o mark; Mark (name; also money); stamp (postage); poŝt~o postage stamp

markoto both “branch” and “one who will be marked”

marmelad/o marmalade, jam

marmor/o, ~a marble

Mars/o Mars

marŝ/i walk, march

Mart/o March; antaŭan, sekvantan

martel/o, ~i hammer

martir/o martyr

mas/o lump, mass

masaĝ/o, ~i massage

masakr/o, ~i massacre

masiv/a massive

mask/o, ~i mask, ~(ar)ado masquerade

mason/i build with stone, etc., ~isto mason

mast/o mast

mastr/o master (over household, servants, etc.), ~i be master over, dominate, ~umi keep house, manage

maŝ/o mesh (of net), loop

maŝin/o machine, engine, ~aro machinery

matĉ/o match, game (sports)

matematik/o mathematics, ~a mathematical, ~isto mathematician

maten/o morning, ~manĝo breakfast

materi/o matter, ~a material

material/o material, data, krudaj ~oj raw materials

matur/a mature, ripe, ~iĝi ripen

mebl/o piece of furniture, ~aro furniture, ~i furnish

meĉ/o wick; fuse (explosives)

medal/o medal

medi/o environment

medicin/o (practice of) medicine

medikamento medicine

medit/i meditate, think to oneself

medol/o marrow, pith

meger/o shrew (woman), ~a ~ish, "bitchy"

meĥanik/o = mekaniko

mejl/o mile

mekanik/o mechanics, ~a mechanical, ~isto mechanic

melankoli/o, ~a melancholy

meleagr/o turkey

melk/i milk

melodi/o melody, tune, ~a tuneful

melodram/o melodrama, ~a ~tic

melon/o melon

mem (my, your, his, etc.) self, -selves, or מ, final form, or mem sofit ם, Hebrew 13th letter, numeric value 40, mem sofit is used rarely as 600, antaŭan, antauŭan sofitan valeron, sekvantan, ~evidenta self-evident, ~stara independent, ~vola willing

membr/o member, ~eco ~ship

memor/i remember, ~o memory, ~igi remind, ~inda memorable

menci/i, ~o mention

mend/o order (for goods or services), ~i order (goods, etc.); book, reserve (restaurant, hotel, etc.)

mens/o mind, ~a mental

mensog/i, ~o (tell a) lie

ment/o mint (plant, flavor)

menton/o chin

menu/o menu

merd/o poop (vulgar)

merit/i deserve, merit, ~o merit

merkat/o market (finance), sales activity (not marketplace)

merkred/o Wednesday; antaŭan, sekvantan

Merkur(i)o Mercury

merl/o blackbird

mes/o Mass (religion)

mesaĝ/o message

met/i put, place, (sur)~i put on (clothes), de~i take off, el~i expose, kun~i put together, sub~(iĝ)i submit, ~it/a placed, established

metafor/o metaphor

metal/o, ~a metal(lic)

mete(or)/o atmospheric phenomenon, ~ologo meteorologist, ~ologio meteorology

meteorit/o meteorite

meti/o handicraft, trade, ~ejo workshop

metod/o method, ~a ~ical, ~ista, ~isto Methodist

metr/o meter, ~a metric

mev/o seagull

mez/o, ~a middle, average, ~epoko Middle Ages, ~aĝa middle-aged, ~maro Mediterranean Sea,~nokto, nokto~o midnight, tag~o noon

mezur/i measure, ~o ~ment

mi I, me, ~a my, mine

miel/o honey, ~a monato, ~luno honeymoon, ~ĉelaro honeycomb

mien/o expression (face)

migdal/o almond, ~okula ~eyed

migr/i migrate, roam, travel about, el~i emigrate, en~i immigrate, ~ema migrant; "footloose"

mikrob/o microbe, germ

mikrofon/o microphone

mikroskop/o microscope

miks/i mix; shuffle (cards), ~aĵo mixture

mil thousand, ~jaro, jar~o millenium. antaŭan, sekvantan

mild/a mild, gentle

milimetr/o millimeter

miliard/o per Wells, 109. antaŭan, sekvantan

milion/o million, 106. antaŭan, sekvantan

milit/o war, ~a military, ~i wage war

min/i, ~(ej)o mine, ~isto ~r

minac/o, ~i threat(en), menace

mineral/o, ~a mineral

minimum/o, ~a minimum, ~e at the least

ministeri/o Ministry (govt. dept.)

ministr/o minister (head of govt. dept.), ~ejo office of minister

minoritat/o, ~a minority

minuskl/o small (lower case) letter

minut/o minute

miop/a short-sighted, near-sighted

miozot/o forget-me-not

mir/i be amazed, marvel, wonder (at), ~igi amaze, ~inda wonderful

miraĝ/o mirage

mirakl/o miracle, ~a miraculous

miriad/o myriad

mis/ (prefix denoting error; see p. 167) ~kompreni misunderstand, ~paŝo false step, ~kalkuli miscalculate, ~decidi make bad decision

misi/o mission, ~isto ~ary

mister/o mystery, ~a mysterious

mistifik/i trick, hoax, fool

mistik/a mystic(al)

mit/o myth, ~a ~ical

miting/o (politics mass) meeting

mitr/o miter (headdress)

mizer/a miserable, wretched, ~o misery

mobiliz/i mobilize

mod/o mode, fashion, (laŭ)~a fashionable, eks~a old-fashioned, out of date

model/o, ~a, ~i model

moder/a, ~igi moderate, ~o moderation

modern/a modern, ~igi ~ize

modest/a modest, ~(ec)o ~y

modif/i modify

modl/i model, mold (clay, etc.)

mok/i mock, jeer at, make fun of

mol/a soft

moment/o moment, ~a ~ary

mon/o money, ~ero coin, ~bileto paper money, ~ujo purse, wallet, ~ludi gamble, ~puno fine

monaĥ/o monk, ~ejo monastery, ~ino nun

monat/o month, ~a ~ly

mond/o world, tut~a ~wide, ~milito ~war, ~umo high society

monokl/o monocle

monopol/o monopoly, ~igi monopolize

monoton/a monotonous

monstr/o monster, ~a monstrous

mont/o mountain, ~eto hill, ~aro (chain of) mountains

montr/i show, point (out), ~iĝi turn out to be, ~ofenestro show window

monument/o monument, ~a ~al

moped/o moped

mor/o custom, mores

moral/a moral, ~o ~s, ~eco ~ity

morbil/o measles

mord/i bite, ~eti nibble

morgaŭ tomorrow [antaŭan, sekvantan], post~ day-after-tomorrow

mormon/o, ~a Mormon

morn/a mournful, gloomy

mors/a Morse code, ~i send in Morse code

mort/o death, ~i die, ~a dead, ~ema mortal, ~igi kill

morter/o mortar (for building)

moru/o codfish, ~oleo ~oil

Mose/o Moses

moske/o mosque

moskit/o mosquito

Moskv/o Moscow

most/o must, young wine

moŝt/o general title for persons of high rank

mot/o motto

motel/o motel

motiv/o motive, reason

motor/o motor, engine

mov/i move (transitive verb.), ~ado ~ment, ~iĝi move (intransitive verb.)

mucid/a musty, moldy

muel/i grind (grain), pulverize, ~ejo mill, ~isto miller

muĝ/i roar, howl

muk/o mucus, phlegm, ~a mucous

mul/o mule

muld/i (cast in a) mold, ~ilo mold

mult/a much, ~aj many, ~e da a lot of, ~ekosta expensive, ~peza weighty, ~obligi duplicate (mimeo, etc.)

multiplik/i multiply (arithmetic)

munici/o (am)munition

munt/i mount, assemble (an apparatus), mal~i take apart

mu/o Greek 12th letter μ [mu], capital form Μ, numeric value 40 antaŭan, sekvantan

mur/o wall

murd/i, ~o murder

murmur/i, ~o murmur

mus/o mouse

musk/o moss

musked/o, musket/o musket

muskol/o muscle, ~a muscular

mustard/o mustard

muŝ/o fly (insect)

mut/a mute, speechless, ~ulo mute

muze/o museum

muzik/o music, ~a ~al, ~isto ~ian, ~i make music


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naci/o nation, ~a ~al, ~eco ~ality, inter~a inter~al

nadl/o needle (compass, phono)

naft/o crude oil

naĝ/i swim, ~baseno ~ming pool

naiv/a naive, mal~a sophisticated

najbar/o neighbor, ~a ~ing, nearby, ~eco ~hood; ~liness

najl/o, ~i nail

najtingal/o nightingale

nan/o, ~a midget, dwarf

narkot/i, ~ilo, ~aĵo drug (narcotic)

nask/i give birth to, ~iĝi be born, ~otago, ~iĝtago birthday

natr/o soda, lye

natur/o nature, ~a natural

naŭ nine, ~a ninth. antaŭan, sekvantan

naŭz/o nausea, ~a nauseous, ~i nauseate

navig(aci)/i navigate, ~ado navigation

naz/o nose, ~a nasal, ~truo nostril, ~tuko handkerchief

nazi/o, ~a Nazi

ne no, not, ~i deny, ~e negatively; as prefix: non-, un-, in-, etc.: ~ordinara unordinary, ~atendite unexpectedly, ~venkebla invincible; tute ne not at all

nebul/o fog, mist

neces/a necessary, ~ejo restroom, bathroom

Nederland/o The Netherlands, Holland, ~a Dutch, ~ano Dutchman

neg/i = nei

negativo, ~a negative (photo, etc.)

neglekt/i neglect

negoc/o business deal(ings), ~i engage in business, negotiate a deal, ~isto merchant, businessman

negr/o, ~a Negro

neĝ/o, ~i snow, ~ero ~flake, ~homo ~man, ~buli throw snowballs

nek... nek... neither... nor...

nekon/a unknown,

nekrolog/o obituary

neni- (forms correlative; see p. 127)

neologism/o neologism (proposed new word)

neon/o, ~a neon

nep/o grandson, ~ino granddaughter, ge~o grandchild

nepi/a ungodly, profane [“ne” + “pi” + ending, “not pious.”]

nepr/e without fail, definitely

Neptun/o Neptune

nerv/o nerve, ~(oz)a nervous

nest/o, ~i nest

net/a finalized, cleanly cut; net (weight, etc.), mal~o (rough) draft (manuscript, etc.), ~igi finalize, put in finished form, ~e carefully prepared; in the final analysis

neŭtral/a neutral

nev/o nephew, ~ino niece

ni we, ~a our(s)

niĉ/o niche

nigr/a black

nilon/o, ~a nylon

nimb/o nimbus, halo

nit/o, ~i rivet

-nj/ (suffix used with names; see p. 168)

nobel/o nobleman, ~a of noble birth

nobl/a noble, ~eco ~ness

noci/o notion

nod/o knot

nokt/o night, ~a nocturnal, ~i, tra~i spend the night, mez~o, ~omezo midnight

nom/o, ~i name

nomad/o nomad, ~a ~ic

nombr/o number, amount, ~i count

nord/o North, ~a ~ern; antaŭan, sekvantan

norm/o norm, standard, ~a normal

normal/a normal

nostalgi/o nostalgia

not/i (make a) note, ~o note; grade (report card), ~libro notebook

nov/a new, ~aĵo a novelty, something new, la ~aĵoj the news, ~eco newness, re~igi renew, de~e afresh

Nov-Jork/o New York

novel/o short story

Novembr/o November; antaŭan, sekvantan

nu well, now (interjection)

nuanc/o tint, hue, shade (color); nuance

nub/o cloud, ~a ~y

nud/a nude, naked, bare

nudel/o noodles

nuk/o nape, back of neck

nukle/o nucleus, ~a nuclear

nuks/o nut

nul/o zero, null, "zilch," ~igi cancel, annul. antaŭan, sekvantan

numer/o numeral, number in a series (house, magazine, etc.), ~i assign a number

nun now, or נ, final form, or nun sofit ן, Hebrew 14th letter, numeric value 50, nun sofit is used rarely as 700, antaŭan, sekvantan, sekvantan sofitan valeron, ~(temp)e nowadays, currently, ~a present, current

nu/o Greek 13th letter ν [nu], capital form Ν, numeric value 50 antaŭan, sekvantan

nur only, ~a mere

nutr/i feed, nourish, ~aĵo food, nourishment


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oaz/o oasis

obe/i obey, ~ema obedient

objekt/o object, thing

-obl/ (suffix denoting multiple; see p. 246)

oblikv/a oblique, slanting

obscen/a obscene

obsed/i obsess, ~o ~ion

observ/i observe

obstakl/o obstacle

obstin/i be obstinate, persist, be stubborn, ~a stubborn, obstinate

obten/i obtain, cf. akir/i

obtuz/a obtuse, dull

ocean/o ocean, ~a ~ic

od/o ode

odor/o odor, smell, ~i give off an odor; smell, ~fumaĵo incense

ofend/i offend, ~iĝi take offense

ofer/i offer up, sacrifice

ofert/i make an offer of, bid

ofic/o office, function, post, "job," ~isto officer, official, ~ejo office, place of work

oficir/o officer (military, etc.), sub~o noncom

oficial/a official

ofset/o offset printing

oft/a frequent, ~e often, mal~a rare

ok eight, ~a ~h. antaŭan, sekvantan

okaz/i occur, happen, ~(aĵ)o event, occasion, occurrence; opportunity, ~e on occasion; by chance, ~igi cause to take place, en ĉiu ~o in any event, en la okazo se... in case...

okcident/o West, ~a ~ern; antaŭan, sekvantan

oksigen/o oxygen

Oktobr/o October; antaŭan, sekvantan

okul/o eye, ~isto oculist, ophthalmologist, ~umi ogle, stare at, ~vitroj ~glasses

okult/a occult

okup/i occupy, ~ita, ~ata busy, ~(ad)o occupation

ol than

ole/o oil

oleastr/a, ~o oleaster

oliban/o frankincense [from Italian, same spelling]

oliv/o olive

om/o Ohm

omaĝ/o homage, ~i pay homage to

omar/o lobster

ombr/o shadow, shade, ~i cast a shadow

ombrel/o umbrella

omeg/o Greek 24th letter ω [omega], capital form Ω, numeric value 800, antaŭan, sekvantan literon, sekvantan valoron

omikron/o Greek 15th letter ο [omicron], capital form Ο, numeric value 70 antaŭan, sekvantan

omnibus/o omnibus

-on/ (suffix denoting fraction; see p. 115) ~o fraction

ond/o wave, ~i undulate, ~umi wave (hair, etc.), corrugate, ~ego billow, mar~o ocean wave

oni one, "they," people in general, ~diro rumor

onkl/o uncle, ~ino aunt

-op/ (suffix denoting collective; see p. 209) unu~e one at a time, unu~a single

opal/o opal

oper/o opera

operaci/o (surgical) operation, ~i operate

opi/o opium, ~aĵo opiate

opini/o opinion, ~i opine, think

oportun/a opportune, convenient, ~isto opportunist

opozici/o opposition, ~i be in opposition

optimism/o optimism, ~a optimistic

optimist/o optimist

or/o gold, ~a ~en, ~igi, ~umi gild

orakl/o oracle

oranĝ/o, ~a orange (fruit, color)

orator/o orator, ~a ~ical

orbit/o orbit

ord/o order (sequence, arrangement), (en)~igi put in order, arrange, kun~igi coordinate, mal~o disorder

orden/o order (religion or decoration)

ordinar/a ordinary, usual, common

ordon/i, ~o order, command

orel/o ear

orf/o, ~a orphan

organ/o organ (anatomy, publication)

organik/a organic

organism/o organism

organiz/i organize, ~(aĵ)o organization

organizaci/o = organizaĵo

orgen/o organ (music)

orgi/o orgy, ~a orgiastic

orient/o East [antaŭan, sekvantan], ~a ~ern, Oriental, ~i orient

origin/i originate, ~o origin

original/o, ~a original

orkestr/o orchestra, ~umi ~te

orkide/o orchid

ornam/o ornament, ~a ~al, ~i adorn, decorate

ort/a right-angle, square, ~ilo T-square, carpenter's square

ortodoks/a orthodox

osced/i, ~o yawn

oscil/o oscillate, ~ilo oscillator, ~ografo oscilloscope

ost/o bone, ĝis~a diehard, dyed-in-the-wool

ostr/o oyster

ov/o egg, ~aĵo "eggs" (food)

ovaci/o ovation

oval/a oval

ozon/o ozone


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pac/o peace, ~a ~ful, ~ama ~loving, mal~(iĝ)i (get in a) quarrel, mal~o quarrel, strife

pacienc/o patience, ~a patient, ~i be patient

pacient/o patient (medical)

Pacifik/o Pacific Ocean

Paĉj/o (from patro) Dad (see p. 168)

pad/o path

padel/o paddle; blade (turbine, etc.), ~i paddle

paf/i shoot, ~arko bow (weapon for shooting arrows), ~ilo gun

pag/i pay, ~o ~ment, sen~e free, gratis

pagan/o, ~a pagan

paĝ/o page (book, etc.)

paĝi/o page (person)

pajl/o straw

pak/i pack, ~(et)o parcel, package, ~aĵo luggage

pal/a pale

palac/o palace

paletr/o (painter's) palette

palis/o stake, ~aro palisade, fence, ~umi impale

palm/o palmtree

palp/i feel (touch), grope

palpebr/o eyelid, ~umi blink

palt/o heavy coat

pamflet/o (tendentious or scurrilous) pamphlet

pan/o bread, loaf, ~ero crumb, ~akiranto ~winner

pane/i, ~o break-down, malfunction, sen~igi fix

panel/o (control) panel, dash board; wainscot

panik/o panic

Panj/o (from patrino) Mom (see p. 168)

pans/i dress (wound)

pantalon/o trousers, pants

pantafl/o slipper

pantomim/i, ~o pantomime

pap/o pope

papag/o, ~umi parrot

papaj/o papaya, papaw

papav/o poppy

papili/o butterfly

paprik/o paprika

par/o pair, couple, ~a even(numbered), mal~a odd

parabol/o parabola, parable

parad/i, ~o parade; display, ~a pretentious

paradiz/o paradise

paradoks/o paradox, ~a ~ical

paragraf/o paragraph

paralel/a parallel

paraliz/o paralysis, ~i paralyze

parametr/o parameter

paranoj/o paranoia, ~a paranoid

paraŝut/o parachute

parazit/o parasite

parcel/o parcel (land), lot

pardon/i pardon, forgive, ~o pardon, ~peti ask forgiveness, excuse oneself

parenc/o a relative, ~a related, ~eco relationship

parentez/o parenthesis, ~e by the way

parfum/o, ~i perfume

Pariz/o Paris, ~ano ~ian

park/o, ~i park

parker/e by heart, ~igi memorize

parlament/o parliament, ~a ~ary, ~ano member of parliament

paroĥ/o, parok/o parish, ~ano ~ioner, ~(ism)a parochial, ~estro vicar, pastor

parol/i speak, talk, ~ado speech, ~ema talkative

part/o part, ~a ~ial, ~opreni take part, ~opago installment payment, plej~e mostly, la plej~o de most of

parter/o parterre (lower floor of theater)

parti/o party (politics), side, faction, ~a partial, biased, sen~a impartial

particip/o participle

paru/o titmouse

parvol/o wren

pas/i pass (intransitive verb.), ~igi pass, ~ejo ~ageway, gangway, gate, ~inteco past, trans~i cross, preter~i pass up, go by, for~i pass away, ~anto passer by, one that passes by

pasaĝer/o passenger

paser/o sparrow

pasi/o passion, ~a ~ate, sen~e dis~ately

Pask/o Easter

pasport/o passport

past/o paste, dough

pasteĉ/o pate; (meat, etc.) pie

pastor/o pastor

pastr/o priest; clergyman

paŝ/o, ~i step, stride, pace

paŝt/i feed (flock), ~isto shepherd, ~iĝi graze

paŝtatar/o flock, herd

pat/o frying pan

patr/o father, ~ino mother, ~ujo fatherland, ge~oj parents

patriark/o patriarch

patriot/o patriot, ~a ~ic, ~ismo ~ism

patrol/o, ~i patrol

patron/o patron, ~i act as patron

Paŭl/o Paul, ~a, ~ino Pauline, Paula

paŭz/o pause, recess, intermission, "break," ~i pause, take a break

pav/o peacock, ~i strut around, show off

pavilon/o pavilion

pavim/i pave, ~o ~ment

pe פ, final form, or pe sofit ף, Hebrew 17th letter, numeric value 80, pe sofit is used rarely as 800, antaŭan, antaŭan sofitan valeron, sekvantan

pec/o piece; spare part

Peĉj/o Pete

pedal/o, ~i pedal

pedik/o louse

peg/o woodpecker

pejzaĝ/o landscape, scenery

pek/i sin, transgress, ~o sin, transgression

pekl/i pickle

pel/i chase, shoo, for~i drive away

pelt/o fur piece, fur coat

pelv/o pelvis; basin

pen/i endeavor, try, make an effort, ~e with effort

pend/(ig)i hang, ~umi hang (execute), de~i depend, sende~a independent

Penelop/o Penelope

penetr/i penetrate, ne~ebla impenetrable

penik/o paintbrush

penis/o penis

pens/i think, ~o thought, el~i invent, pri~i reflect on, think about

pensi/o pension (retirement), ~ulo pensioner, retiree, ~iĝi retire, go on pension

pension/o boarding house, boarding school

pent/i repent, ~o ~ance, ~ofari do penance

Pentekost/o Pentecost, Whitsunday

pentr/i paint (picture), ~isto ~er, ~aĵo ~ing

peon/o pawn (chess, etc.)

pep/i peep, chirp, twitter

per by (means of), with, through, sen~e directly, ~i act as agent, ~anto agent, ~labori earn, ~forti force ~forte by force

perd/i lose, ~o loss, ~iĝi get lost

perdrik/o partridge

pere/i perish, ~igi destroy, ~iĝo, ~igo destruction

perfekt/a, ~igi perfect, ~eco ~ion

perfid/i betray, ~o ~al, treachery, ~(em)a treacherous

periferi/o periphery, outskirts

perimetr/o perimeter, circumference

period/o period (time)

periskop/o periscope

perl/o pearl

permes/i permit, allow, ~o permission, ~ilo permit, license, for~o leave of absence; pass, furlough (military)

peron/o front steps of a building; railway platform

perpleks/a perplexed

persekut/i persecute, prosecute, pursue

persik/o peach

persist/i persist, persevere, ~a persistent, ~ado, ~emo perseverance

person/o person, ~a ~al, ~eco ~ality, ~oj people

perspektiv/o perspective

persvad/i persuade, ~o persuasion

perturb/i perturb, disquiet, interfere with, ~o unrest, disquiet, disturbance; interference (radio)

peruk/o wig, hairpiece

pervers/a perverse

pes/i weigh (test weight of), ~ilo scale

pesimism/o pessimism, ~a pessimistic

pesimist/o pessimist

pest/o plague, pestilence

pet/i request, ask, beg, mi ~as please; you're welcome, ~egi beseech, ~skribo petition

petal/o petal

petici/o petition

petol/a petulant, frolicsome, ~i frolic, "horse around," ~ema mischievous, playful

Petr/o Peter

petrol/o petroleum, kruda ~o crude oil, lampa ~o kerosene

pez/a heavy, ~i be heavy, weigh, ~o weight (heaviness), ~ilo a weight

pi/a pious, ~o piety, or Greek 16th letter π [pi], capital form Π, numeric value 80 antaŭan (literon kaj valoron), sekvantan literon, sekvantan valoron, mal~a priggish, sanctimonious, ne~a ungodly, profane [“ne” + “pi” + ending, “not pious.”]

pian/o piano, ~isto pianist

pigr/a lazy

pied/o foot, ~fingro toe, ~bati kick, ~iranto pedestrian, ~pilko football, soccer ball, ~premi step on, ~pasi tread

piĵam/o pyjamas

pik/i prick, sting, stab, ~o prick, sting; spades (cards), ~drato barbed-wire, ~ilo pike, spike

piknik/o, ~i picnic

pilgrim/i go on pilgrimage, ~(ad)o pilgrimage, ~anto pilgrim

pilk/o ball (for playing)

pilol/o pill

pilot/o, ~i pilot

pin/o pine (tree)

pinĉ/i pinch, ~ilo pincers, tong

pingl/o pin; needle (on tree)

pint/o point, peak, summit, ~a pointed

pioĉ/o pick-axe

pionir/o pioneer

pip/o pipe (tobacco)

pipr/o, ~i pepper

pir/o pear

piramid/o pyramid

pirat/o pirate, aer~o skyjacker

pis/i to urinate

pist/i pound, crush, ~ilo pestle

pistol/o pistol; spray gun

piŝt/o piston

pitoresk/a picturesque

pivot/i, ~o pivot

piz/o pea

plac/o public square, plaza

plaĉ/i be pleasing, please, kiel plaĉas al vi... ? how do you like... ?, ~a pleasing, laŭ~e as desired, as you like

plad/o dish, platter; course

plafon/o ceiling

plag/o calamity, scourge, ~i plague, afflict

plaĝ/o bathing beach

plan/i plan, ~o plan, diagram; plane; unua ~o closeup (photography), granda ~o long shot, antaŭ~o foreground, malantaŭa ~o background

pland/o sole (foot), ~umo sole (shoe)

planed/o planet, ~a ~ary

plank/o floor

plant/o, ~i plant, ~ejo ~ation

plasm/o plasma

plast/o, ~a plastic

plastr/o plaster (dressing)

plat/a flat, ~o plate, slab, ~aĵo plateau

platform/o platform

plaŭd/i splash, plash, lap

pled/i plead (law)

plej most, -est (see p. 111), ~parto greatest part, great majority

plekt/i plait, wreathe, twine

plen/a full, complete, ~igi fill up, ~umi fulfill, accomplish, ~luno full moon, ~aĝa, ~kreska full-grown, adult, ~plena full to overflowing, ~buŝo mouthful, ~mano handful ~eco fullness

plend/i complain, ~o ~t

plezur/o pleasure, ~iga pleasurable

pli more, -er (see p. 111), ~ poste later on, mal~ less, ~mal~ more or less, ~multo majority, ~igi increase, ~bonigi improve, ~altigi raise

plonĝ/i dive, plunge, ~isto diver

plor/i weep, cry, pri~i to mourn

plu further, more, ~e furthermore, ne ~ no longer, kaj tiel plu, k.t.p. etc.

plug/i, ~ilo plough

plum/o feather; pen

plumb/o, ~a lead

plur/aj several, ~a plural

plus plus, ~o sur~

pluv/i, ~o rain, ~egi rain cats and dogs, pour

pneŭmoni/o pneumonia

po at the rate of (see p. 133), ~grande wholesale, ~malgrande retail

podi/o podium, platform

poem/o poem

poent/o point (score)

poet/o poet

poezi/o poetry, ~a poetic

pokal/o goblet; fancy cup

poker/o poker (game)

pol/o Pole, ~a Polish, ~io, ~ujo, ~lando Poland

polemik/o controversy, ~i engage in controversy

polic/o police, ~ano ~man, ~estro chief of police

polis/o (insurance) policy

politik/o politics; policy, ~a political

polk/o polka

polp/o octopus

polur/o polish, luster, ~i polish

polus/o (North, South; positive, negative) pole, ~a polar

polv/o dust, ~osuĉilo vacuum cleaner

pom/o apple, ter~o potato

pomp/o pomp, splendor, ~a resplendent

ponard/o dagger

pont/o bridge

popl/o poplar

popol/o a people, folk, ~amaso the masses, ~kanto folk song, inter~a people-to-people

popular/a popular

por for, in order to, ~ ke so that

porci/o portion, ~umi, ~igi ration out

pord/o door, gate

pore/o leek

pork/o pig, ~aĵo pork

pornografi/o, ~aĵo pornography, ~a pornographic

port/i carry, wear, al~i bring, trans~i transport, el~i carry out, put up with, endure

portik/o portico, ornate porch/entryway

portret/o portrait

posed/i possess, own, ~(aĵ)o ~ion, property

post after, behind, ~e afterwards, ~skribo P.S., ~tagmezo afternoon, ~lasi leave behind,~aĵo backside, rump, ~eulo successor, de~ since

posten/o post, duty station, ~i stand guard, be on duty

postul/i demand, require

poŝ/o pocket, ~tuko handkerchief

poŝt/o mail, post, ~marko postage stamp, ~karto postcard, ~stampo cancellation, ~(ofic)ejo post office, ~aĵo a piece of mail, ~isto mailman, , ret~o e-mail

pot/o pot, ~isto ~ter, ~aĵo ~tery

potenc/o power, ~a ~ful

poŭp/o stern, poop(deck)

pov/i be able, can, ~o ability, ĉeval~o horsepower, ĉio~a almighty

poz/i, ~o pose (picture; pretense)

pozici/o position

pozitiv/a, ~o positive

pra/ (prefix denoting other generation; see p. 211), ~patro forefather, ~avo great-grandfather, ~nepo greatgrandson, ~tipo prototype, ~historio prehistory

praktik/a practical, ~i practice (profession, etc.), ~o (actual) practice

pram/o (small) ferry, ~ŝipo ferryboat

prav/a right, mal~a wrong, ~i be right

precip/e especially, mainly, ~a principal, predominant

preciz/a precise, ~e ~ly, exactly, ~eco precision, exactness

predik/i preach, ~(aĵ)o sermon, ~isto preacher

prefer/i prefer

prefiks/o prefix

preĝ/i pray, ~o ~er, ~ejo church

preleg/i, ~o lecture

prem/i (op)press, squeeze, man~o handshake

premi/i award a prize, ~o prize, premium

pren/i take, get, lay hold of, ek~i grasp, ~ilo tongs, ĉirkaŭ~i embrace, de~i loosen, remove, de~o el la salajro salary deduction

prepar/i prepare ~a preparatory, preliminary, ~o preparation

prepozici/o preposition

prepucio foreskin

preri/o prairie

pres/i print (type), ~aĵo ~ed matter, ~isto ~er, ~ilo press, ~prov(aĵ)o proof, ~litero(j) type

presbiter/o elder

preskaŭ almost, nearly

prestiĝ/o prestige, glamor, ~a prestigious, glamorous

pret/a ready, finished, ~igi prepare, ~iĝi get ready

pretekst/o pretext, ~i pretend, give as an excuse

pretend/i claim, make a pretense, presume to, ~o claim, pretense, presumption

preter beyond, straight past, ~pasi pass by, overtake, ~lasi omit, leave out

prez/o price, ~listo price~list

prezent/i present, introduce, ~ado presentation

prezid/i preside, ~anto president, chairman

pri about, concerning; (as prefix see p. 301), ~skribi describe, ~paroli discuss, ~plori to mourn

primitiv/a primitive

primol/o primrose

princ/o prince, ~ido prince's son, ~ino princess

princip/o principle, ~e in principle

printemp/o spring(time); antaŭan, sekvantan

prism/o prism

privat/a private

privilegi/o privilege, ~a ~d

pro on account of, for, because of, ~peti plead for, intercede, ~ tio, ke for the reason that

probabl/a probable

problem/o problem

proced/i proceed, ~o process, procedure

procent/o percent(age), interest rate, ~aĵo commission, 10 procentoj 10%

proces/o lawsuit, ~i sue, litigate, go to court

procesi/o procession

produkt/o product, ~i produce, ~ado production, ~isto producer

profan/i profane, defile

profesi/o profession, ~a ~al

profesor/o professor

profet/o prophet, ~i prophesy, ~aĵo prophecy

profil/o profile

profit/i, ~o profit

profund/a deep, profound, ~(ec)o, ~aĵo depth

prognoz/o prognosis, forecast, ~i forecast

program/o program (series of events), ~ero item on a program

progres/i, ~o progress

projekci/i project, ~ilo ~or, ~isto ~ionist

projekt/o project, plan, scheme, ~i plan, make a project of

proklam/i proclaim, ~(ad)o, ~aĵo proclamation

prokrast/i delay, put off, ~o delay, ~emo procrastination, sen~e without delay

proksim/a near(by), next, mal~a distant, (al)~iĝi come close(r), ~ume approximately

prokuror/o public prosecutor, prosecuting attorney

prolet/o proletarian, member of the lower class, ~aro the proletariat

proletari/o = proleto

prolog/o prologue

promen/i go for a walk, stroll; (less freq.: go for a ride), ~ado stroll, walk, etc., ~ejo promenade, ~anto stroller

promes/i, ~o promise

promoci/i promote, ~o promotion

prononc/i pronounce, ~o pronunciation

propagand/o propaganda, publicity, ~i publicize, advertise, ~aĵo publicity material

propon/i propose, suggest, offer, ~o proposal, offer

proporci/o proportion, ratio, ~a proportional

propr/a (my, your, etc.) own, personal, ~aĵo property, ~avole voluntarily

prospekt/o prospectus

prosper/i prosper, be successful, ~o prosperity, success, prosperis al mi... I managed to...

prostitu/i, ~itino prostitute

protein/o protein

protekt/i protect, ~anto patron, ~ato protege, ~(ism)a protectionist

protest/i, ~o protest

protestant/a, ~o Protestant

protokol/o minutes (meeting)

proton/o proton

prototip/o prototype

prov/i try, test, ~aĵo trial, test

proverb/o proverb

provinc/o province

proviz/i provide, supply ~o supply

provizor/a temporary, provisional, ~e for the time being

provok/i provoke, incite

proz/o prose

prozelit/o proselyte, convert

pru/o prow, bow (ship)

prud/a prudish, ~ul(in)o prude

prudent/a prudent, reasonable, ~o good sense

prun/o plum

prunt/i borrow, loan, lend: ~edoni lend, ~epreni borrow

pruv/i prove, ~o proof

psalm/o psalm, ~aro the Psalms

pseŭdonim/o pseudonym

psik/a psychic

psikiatr/o psychiatrist, ~a psychiatric, ~io psychiatry

psikolog/o psychologist, ~a psychological, ~io psychology

psi/o Greek 23d letter ψ [psi], capital form Ψ, numeric value 700, antaŭan, sekvantan

ptm. = posttagmeze, p.m. cf. antaŭtagmeze

publik/o, ~a public, ~igi publish

puding/o pudding

pudor/o modesty, chaste behavior

pudr/o, ~i (cosmetic) powder

puf/o puff, swelling, ~igi puff out, ~iĝi puff up

pugn/o fist, ~obati punch

pul/o flea

puli/o pulley

pulm/o lung

pulmonari/o pulmonaria (lungwort plant)

pulover/o pullover sweater

puls/o pulse, ~i pulsate, throb

pulv/o gunpowder

pulvor/o powder, ~a ~y, ~igi pulverize

pump/i, ~ilo pump

pun/i punish, ~o ~ment, mon~o fine

punĉ/o punch (drink)

pund/o pound (money)

punkt/o point, dot, period, ~i punctuate

punt/o lace

pup/o doll, (hand) puppet

pupitr/o (school) desk, lectern

pur/a clean, pure, ~igi clean, ~eco cleanliness, purity, mal~igi defile, Biblical: the lot, dice (Ester iii.7, ix.24, etc.)

purgatori/o purgatory

puritan/o, ~a puritan

purpur/a purple

pus/o pus, ~i discharge pus

puŝi, ~o push, ~iĝi kun run into, re~i repulse, ~veturilo wheelbarrow

put/o well, putin/o whore

putr/i rot, ~a ~ten


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rab/i rob, ~isto ~ber, ~aĵo booty, ~(o)besto beast of prey

rabat/o discount, rebate, ~i deduct a discount

raben/o rabbi

rabi/o rabies, ~a rabid, mad

raci/a rational, ~o logical reasoning

rad/o wheel

radar/o radar

radi/o radio; ray, beam, ~i radiate, ~isto radioman

radik/o root, el~igi eradicate

radikal/a, ~ulo (politics) radical, ~o (math.) radical

radiofoni/o wireless telegraph

radium/o radium

radius/o radius

rafan/o radish

rafin/i refine, ~ejo ~ry

ragu/o ragout, stew

raj/o skate, stingray

rajd/i ride

rajt/i be entitled to, ~o a right, ~igi authorize, Ĉu mi ~as... May I (= Is it all right if I... )

raket/o rocket

rakont/i relate, tell (a story, etc.), ~o story, tale

rambutan/o rambutan (tree)

ramp/i crawl, creep

ran/o frog

rand/o edge, rim, brim

rang/o rank, grade, rate (military, etc.)

ranunkol/o buttercup

rapid/a fast, quick, ~i go fast, hurry, ~(ec)o speed, ~umo gear, mal~a slow, ~limo speed limit

raport/o, ~i report

rapsodi/o rhapsody

rar/a rare, precious

ras/o race, breed, ~ismo racism

rasp/i rasp, grate

rast/i, ~ilo rake

rat/o rat

raŭk/a hoarse

raŭp/o caterpillar

rav/i delight, ~a ~ful

raz/i shave (transitive verb.), ~ilo razor

razen/o lawn

re/ (prefix see p. 92), ~veni return, ~doni give back, ~iri go back, ~agi react, ~vidi see again, ĝis la ~vido so long, ~e again, ~en back(wards)

reakci/o reaction (physics, politics), ~a, ~ulo reactionary

real/a real, practical, ~isto ~ist, ~iĝi come true, ~igi produce (film, etc.)

recenz/i, ~o review (book, etc.)

recept/o recipe, prescription

reciprok/a reciprocal, mutual, ~i reciprocate

redakci/o editorial dept.

redakt/i edit, ~isto ~or

redaktor/o = redaktisto

redingot/o frock coat

redukt/i reduce (transitive verb.)

referenc/o reference (bibliographical, testimonial)

reflekt/i reflect (light, sound)

reflektor/o car headlight

refut/i refute

reg/i rule, govern, reign, control, ~anto ruler, ~istaro government

regal/i entertain, treat, ~o treat

regiment/o regiment

region/o region, ~a ~al

registr/o register, record, ~i record (document, sound, video, etc.)

regn/o realm, kingdom, sovereign country, ~estro head of state

regul/o rule, ~a regular, ~igi regulate, ~aro rules, regulations

reĝ/o king, ~ino queen, ~a royal, regal, ~lando kingdom

reĝim/o regime

reĝisor/o stage-manager

reklam/i advertise, ~o ~ment

rekomend/i recommend; register (mail)

rekompenc/o reward, compensation, ~i reward, compensate

rekont/i to struggle, thrash about

rekord/o record (world's, etc.)

rekrut/o, ~i recruit

rekt/a direct, straight

rektor/o rector (school)

rekvir/i = rekvizicii

rekvizici/i seize, exact, requisition

rel/o rail (train)

relativ/a relative (not absolute)

religi/o religion, ~a religious

rem/i row, ~ilo oar, ~boato ~boat

rembur/i upholster, pad, stuff, ~isto upholsterer

rempar/o rampart

ren/o kidney

rendevu/o rendezvous, appointment, date, ~i meet (by arrangement)

renkont/i meet, encounter (transitive verb.), ~iĝi meet (intransitive verb.)

renom/o renown, fame

rent/o return on investment, ~umo interest

renvers/i upset, overthrow, turn upside down

repertuar/o repertoire

reprezent/i represent, ~anto ~ative

reptili/o reptile

reputaci/o reputation

reŝ ר, [unicode “resh”] Hebrew 20th letter, numeric value 200, antaŭan, sekvantan

respekt/i ~o respect, ~inda ~able

respektiv/a respective

respond/i respond, reply, answer, ~eco responsibility, ~eci pri be responsible for

respublik/o republic, ~a, ~ano ~an

rest/i remain, stay, ~(aĵ)o remainder, rest, ~into survivor

restoraci/o restaurant

ret/o net, network, ~aĵo matrix

resum/o summary, ~i summarize

retorik/o rhetoric, oratory

reŭmatism/o rheumatism

rev/i, ~o daydream, ~(o)lando dreamland, el~iĝi be disappointed, disillusioned

revizor/o government inspector, auditor

revoluci/o revolution, ~a ~ary

revolver/o revolver

revu/i review (soldiers, etc.), ~o journal, review (magazine on specialized subject)

rezerv/i (keep in) reserve

rezign/i give up, renounce

rezist/i resist, withstand, ne~ebla irresistible

rezoluci/o resolution, motion (meeting)

rezon/o reason, reasoning

rezult/o, ~i result, ~igi bring about

rezultat/o conclusion; result (of a process)

ribel/i rebel, revolt, ~o rebellion, mutiny, revolt, ~ema rebellious, insubordinate

ricev/i receive, get

riĉ/a rich, well-off, ~ulo rich man

rid/i, ~o laugh, ~ado ~ter, ~eti smile, ~inda ridiculous

rif/o reef (rocks)

rifuĝ/i take refuge, ~into refugee, ~ejo shelter, place of refuge

rifuz/i refuse, ~o refusal

rigard/i look at, regard; consider (deem), ek~i glance, sub~i condescend, look down upon

rigid/a stiff, rigid

rigl/i, ~ilo bolt (door)

rigor/o rigor, ~a ~ous, stringent

rikolt/i, ~(aĵ)o harvest

rilat/i relate (have reference) to, ~e al with reference to

rim/o, ~(ig)i rhyme

rimark/i, ~o notice, ~igi al bring to (someone's) attention, ~inda remarkable

rimed/o means, remedy, resource

rimen/o strap

rinkan/i sneer, grin knowingly

ring/o ring, orel~o ear~

rip/o rib

ripar/i repair, fix

ripet/i repeat

ripoz/i, ~o rest, repose, ~ejo resting place; waiting room

riproĉ/i reproach, scold, rebuke, "tell off," ~inda reprehensible

risk/i, ~o risk, hazard

risort/o spring (mechanics)

rit/o rite, ~a ritualistic, ~aro ritual

ritm/o rhythm, ~a ~ic

rival/o, ~i rival

rivel/i reveal; develop (photo)

river/o river, ~eto stream

riverenc/i ~o bow, curtsy; obeisance

riz/o rice, ~okamp ~field

rob/o dress, robe, gown, sub~o slip

Robert/o Robert

robot/o robot

rod/i gnaw

rododendr/o rhododendron

rok/o rock

rol/o role, part (acting), ~anto character (in play, etc.)

Rom/o Rome

roman/o novel

romantik/a romantic, ~o ~ism

romb/o rhombus

romp/(iĝ)i break, ~iĝema breakable, brittle, inter~i interrupt

rond/a round, ~o circle

ronĝ/i gnaw, nibble, ~ulo rodent

ronk/i snore

ros/o dew

rost/i roast (meat, etc.), toast (bread)

rostbif/o roastbeef

rostr/o (elephant's) trunk; proboscis

rot/o squad (military), gang, or Greek 17th letter ρ [rho], capital form Ρ, numeric value 100, antaŭan literon, antaŭan valoron, sekvantan (literon kaj valoron)

Rotari/o Rotary

roz/o rose, ~(kolor)a pink

rozari/o rosary

rub/o rubbish, debris, rubble, ~ujo garbage can, ~ejo garbage dump

ruband/o ribbon

rubekol/o robin

ruben/o ruby

Rubikon/o Rubicon

rubl/o rouble (money)

rubrik/o column (newspaper or magazine feature) or its heading

ruĝ/a red, ~iĝi blush

ruin/o, ~igi ruin

rukt/i belch, burp

rul/(iĝ)i roll, ~ŝuo ~erskate

rum/o rum

rus/o ~a Russian, ~io, ~ujo Russia

rust/o, ~i rust

Rut/o Ruth

rutin/o routine, sheer habit

ruz/a sly, cunning, ~o trick, ruse


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sabat/o Saturday [antaŭan, sekvantan]; Sabbath

sabl/o sand, ~ero grain of ~

sadism/o sadism, ~a sadistic

sadist/o sadist

sag/o arrow

sagac/a shrewd, astute

saĝ/a wise, ~(ec)o wisdom, ~umi split hairs; show off, act wise

sak/o sack, bag, ~strato dead-end street

sakr/i cuss

sakrament/o sacrament

saksofono/o saxophone

sal/o, ~i salt, ~ero grain of ~, ~ujo ~shaker

salajr/o salary, wages

salat/o salad

sald/o balance (account), ~i strike a balance

salik/o willow

salikok/o prawn, ~eto shrimp

saliv/o saliva, ~i salivate, ~umi slobber

salm/o salmon

Salomon/o Solomon

salon/o salon; sitting room, parlor

salt/i, ~o jump, leap, ~eti hop, ek~i start (pain, surprise, etc.)

salut/i greet, salute, ~o greeting, ~on! Hello!

sameĥ ס, [unicode “samekh”] Hebrew 15th letter, numeric value 60, antaŭan, sekvantan

sam/a same, ~e equally, mal~a different, ~ideano fellow-thinker, fellow Esperantist, ~landano compatriot

Samaritan/o Samaritan

samovar/o samovar

sampi/o archaic Greek letter “sampi,” ϡ, capital form Ϡ, now used for Greek numeric value 900, antaŭan valoron, sekvantan valoron

san/a healthy, well, ~o health, ~i be well, mal~a ill, mal~o disease, mal~i be ailing, mal~ulo patient, mal~ulejo hospital, (re)~igi heal, cure

sandal/o sandal

sandviĉ/o sandwich

sang/o blood, ~a ~y, ~i bleed, sen~a, ~omanka bloodless, anemic

sankci/o, ~i sanction

sankt/a sacred, holy, ~ulo saint, ~igi sanctify

sap/o, ~umi soap

sardel/o sardine (pickled)

sark/i weed out

sarkasm/a sarcastic, ~o sarcasm

sarong/o sarong

sat/a satisfied, "full" (food), mal~a hungry, mal~(eg)o famine

Satan/o Satan, ~a ~ic

satelit/o satellite

saŭc/o sauce, gravy

sav/i save, rescue, ~zono lifebelt, safety belt, ~boato lifeboat, for~iĝinto refugee

scen/o scene, ~ejo stage

sci/i know, know how, ~ado, knowledge, ~igi inform, let know, ~iĝi find out, learn of, ~povi know how, ~vola curious, inquisitive, ~vol(em)e inquisitively, ~voli wonder, want to know, ĉion~ado omniscience; ne~ado, ignorance

scienc/o science, ~isto scientist

sciur/o squirrel

se if

seb/o suet, tallow

sed but

seg/i ~ilo saw

seĝ/o chair

sek/a, ~igi dry, mal~iĝi get wet

sekal/o rye

sekci/o section

sekret/o, ~a secret

sekretari/o secretary

seks/o sex, ~kuniĝo copulation, ~umi have sex

sekt/o sect

sekund/o second (1/60 of minute)

sekur/a secure, safe, ~eco security

sekv/i follow, ~o consequence, ~e consequently, ~(ant)a, ~inta, ~onta next, sin~e consecutively

sel/o saddle, en~iĝi mount up

sem/i sow, ~o seed, dis~i disseminate

semajn/o week, ĉiu~e weekly

sen without, ~dube undoubtedly, ~ĉese ceaselessly, ~fine endlessly, ~intenca unintentional, ~bezona needless, ~igi de deprive of, ~taŭga good-for-nothing

senat/o senate, assembly

senc/o sense, meaning, sen~aĵo nonsense

send/i send; transmit (radio, etc.)

sensaci/o sensation, ~a ~al

sent/i feel, ~o ~ing, sensation, kun~o sympathy

sentenc/o wise saying, proverb

sentiment/o sentiment, ~a ~al

sep seven, ~a, ~ono ~th. antaŭan, sekvantan

sepi/a, ~(aĵ)o sepia

seps/a septic, infected, kontraŭ~a antiseptic

Septembr/o September; antaŭan, sekvantan

ser/o serum

serĉ/i search, look for

seren/a serene, untroubled

serenad/o serenade

serĝent/o sergeant

seri/o series, ~a serial

serioz/a serious, earnest

serpent/o serpent, snake, ~umi wind around, meander

serum/o serum

serur/o lock, ~isto ~smith

serv/i serve, ~o service, ~isto servant

servut/o servitude, serfdom, ~ulo serf

ses six, ~a, ~ono ~th. antaŭan, sekvantan

sesi/o session

sever/a severe, strict

sezon/o season (of year)

sfer/o sphere

si (see p. 137), ~ngardo caution, ~ndone selflessly, devotedly, ~nteno attitude

Siberi/o Siberia

sibl/i hiss

sid/i sit, ~iĝi sit down, ~loko seat (theater, etc.)

sieĝ/i besiege, ~o siege

sigel/i, ~o seal

sigm/o Greek 18th letter σ [sigma], capital form Σ, numeric value 200; antaŭan, sekvantan; final form ς (numeric value 6, antaŭan valoron, sekvantan valoron)

sign/o sign

signal/o, ~i signal

signif/o signify, mean, ~o meaning

sikl/o shekel

silab/o syllable

silent/a silent, ~o silence

silk/o silk

siluet/o silhouette

simbol/o symbol, ~i ~ize

simetri/o symmetry, ~a symmetric

simfoni/o symphony, ~a symphonic

simi/o monkey, ape

simil/a similar, like, ~eco similarity, mal~a different

simpati/o sympathy, ~a sympathetic

simpl/a simple, ~igi simplify, mal~a complex

simptom/o symptom

sin/o bosom, ~don/a devoted, selfless (cf. Sentencoj xviii.24, I Reĝoj viii.61)

sinap/o mustard

sinkop/i syncopate

s-ino abbreviation for sinjorino

sinagog/o synagogue

sincer/a sincere, ~(ec)o sincerity

sindikat/o syndicate; labor union

singult/i, ~o hiccup

sinjor/o Mr., Sir, gentleman; Lord, ~ino Mrs., Madam, lady

siring/o lilac

sirop/o syrup

sirok/o sirocco, a desert wind

sistem/o system, (laŭ)~a ~atic

sitel/o bucket, pail

situ/i be situated, ~o site

situaci/o situation, circumstance(s)

skal/o scale (map, measure, etc.)

skandal/o scandal; commotion; shocking occurrence

Skani/o Scania

skarab/o beetle, maj~o june bug

skatol/o box, lad~o (tin) can (food)

skelet/o skeleton

skem/o scheme; model, pattern

skeptik/a skeptical, ~ulo skeptic

ski/o, ~kuri ski

skism/o schism

skiz/o, ~i sketch

sklav/o slave

skol/o school (of thought, art, etc.)

skolt/o boy scout

skori/o slag, dross

skorpi/o scorpion

skot/o Scot, ~lando ~land, ~a ~tish, scotch

skrap/i scrape

skrib/i write, pri~i describe, sub~i sign, ~maŝino typewriter, ~(o)tablo desk

sku/i shake (transitive verb.), shock

skulpt/i sculpt, carve, ~aĵo sculpture, carving, inscription

slav/o,~a Slav(ic)

slip/o slip (paper), filing card, ~aro file

smerald/o emerald

snob/o, ~a snob(bish)

sobr/a sober, temperate

soci/a social, ~o society (community of persons), ~eto society (organization)

social/a social, ~ismo ~ism

sof/o sofa

soif/o thirst, ~i be ~y

sojl/o threshold

sokl/o supporting base (for statue, wall, etc.)

sol/a sole, alone, ~e solely, only, ~eca solitary, lonely, ~o solo (music), ~isto soloist

soldat/o soldier; (chess) pawn

solen/a solemn, ceremonious, ~i observe with ceremony

solid/a solid

solidar/a jointly responsible, standing together, ~(ec)o solidarity

solv/i solve, dissolve, ~o solution

somer/o summer [antaŭan, sekvantan], ~domo ~house

son/i, ~o sound, bel~a euphonious, ~bendo audio tape

sonat/o sonata

sonĝ/i, ~o dream (asleep)

sonor/i ring (intransitive verb.), ~a sonorous, ~ilo bell

sopir/i long for, yearn, ~o longing

sopran/o soprano

sorb/i absorb; sip (as through a straw), ~a absorbent, ~a papero blotter

sorĉ/o sorcery, ~i bewitch, ~istino witch, en~iga enchanting

sort/o destiny, fate, fortune

sovaĝ/a wild, savage, mal~a tame

sov(j)et/a Soviet, Sovet-Unio the USSR

spac/o space

spad/o (dress) sword, rapier

spark/o spark (electricity), ~ilo spark plug

spasm/o spasm

spec/o kind, sort, species

special/a (e)special

specif(ik)/i specify, ~a specific

specimen/o specimen, sample

spegul/o mirror, ~i reflect

spekt/i watch as spectator, ~anto spectator

spektakl/o spectacle, show

sperm/o sperm, semen

spert/o experience, ~a ~d, expert, ~ulo expert

spez/i transact money; el~i pay out, en~i take in, en~o(j) income, el~o(j) expenses, ~ado cash flow

spic/o, ~i spice, ~isto grocer

spin/o spine

spinac/o spinach

spion/o, ~i spy

spir/i, ~o breath(e), en~i inhale, el~i exhale, ~ado respiration

spirit/o spirit, ~a ~ual, ~ismo spiritualism

spit/o spite, defiance, ~i defy, ~e defiantly, in (de)spite

splen/o ill humor, "the blues"

split/o splinter, ~i splinter, split (transitive verb.)

spong/o sponge, ~(ec)a spongy

spont(an)/a, spontane/a spontaneous

sporad/a sporadic

sport/o sport, ~isto ~sman; athlete

sprit/o wit, ~a ~ty, lively, mal~a dull, stupid

spron/o, ~i spur

spur/o trace, track (left by animals, etc.)

sputnik/o Sputnik

s-ro abbreviation for sinjoro

stab/o staff (military, etc.)

stabil/a stable

stabl/o (work)bench, trestle, easel

staci/o station, ~domo (large railway) station house

stadi/o stage (of development); stadium

stadion/o stadium

stafet/o relay rider, relay racer

stagn/i stagnate

stal/o stall for animals

stamp/i stamp, mark

stan/o, ~a tin

standard/o standard (flag)

stang/o pole, rod

star/i stand, ek~i stand up

start/i start off, ~igilo starter

stat/o state, condition, bon~a in good condition

statist/i play a small part (play, etc.), ~o bit-player, supporting actor

statistik/o statistics

statu/o statue

statur/o stature

statut/o regulations, by-laws

steb/i stitch, quilt

Stefan/o Steven

stel/o star, ~eto footnote star (*); asterisk, ~figuro constellation

stenograf/i write shorthand, ~io shorthand, stenography

step/o steppe, moor

steril/a sterile, ~igi sterilize

sterk/o manure, fertilizer, ~i fertilize

stern/i lay out, spread

stertor/i make hoarse, rattling noise in throat

stevard/o steward, attendant (ship, plane, etc.)

stil/o style

stimul/i stimulate

stir/i steer (vehicle), ~ilo ~ing wheel; (airplane) joystick

stiv/i stow (cargo), ~isto stevedore

stoik/a, ~ulo stoic(al)

stok/o, ~i stock (goods)

stomak/o stomach

strab/i be cross-eyed; look askance

strand/o (bathing) beach

strang/a strange, peculiar

strangol/i strangle

strat/o street, ~angulo corner

strategi/o strategy, ~a strategic

streb/i strive for

streĉ/i stretch (transitive verb.), wind up (spring, etc.), ~o tension, mal~o detente, mal~iĝi relax

strek/o stroke (drawn line), ~i make a stroke, for~i strike out, halto~o hyphen, sub~i underline, emphasize

stri/o strip(e), ray

strig/o owl

strik/o, ~i strike (stop work)

strof/o verse (song, etc.)

struktur/o structure

strut/o ostrich

stud/i study, ~anto student

student/o = studanto (university)

studi/o studio (TV, etc.)

stup/o oakum, tow


stult/a stupid, foolish, ~ulo fool

stumbl/i stumble

sub under, beneath, ~aŭskulti eavesdrop, ~metiĝi submit, ~iri go down, ~rigardi condescend, look down upon, ~skribi sign, ~taso saucer, ~teni support, ~tera underground, ~ulo subordinate, ~urbo suburb,

subenŝarĝ/i, ~o download

subit/a sudden

subjekt/o subject

subjektiv/a subjective

sublimat/o corrosive sublimate

substanc/o substance

substantiv/o substantive, noun

substitu/i substitute (transitive verb.)

subtil/a subtle

subtrah/i subtract (arithmetic), ~o ~ion

subvenci/i subsidize, ~o subsidy

suĉ/i suck, ~igi suckle

sud/o South, ~a ~ern; antaŭan, sekvantan

sufer/i suffer, endure

sufiĉ/a sufficient, enough; ~e sufficiently; rather, ~i suffice

sufiks/o suffix

suflor/i prompt (theater), ~o ~er

sufok/i suffocate (transitive verb.), choke

sugest/i suggest, ~o ~ion

sugesti/i suggest (hypnotically, etc.), ~o the power of ~ion

suk/o juice, sap

sukces/i succeed, ~o success, mal~i fail

suker/o sugar, ~ujo ~bowl

sulfur/o sulfur, ~a ~ic, ~ous

sulk/o, ~i furrow, wrinkle (transitive verb.)

sultan/o sultan

sum/o sum, ~igi sum up, re~i summarize, re~o summary, resume

sun/o sun, ~radio ~beam, ~leviĝo ~rise, ~subiro ~set, ~floro ~flower, ~umi (put out to) sun

sup/o soup

super above, over, ~a, ~ulo superior, ~eco beyond measure, superabundant, superior, ~forti overpower, ~flua superfluous, ~homo superman, ~i surpass, exceed, ~jaro leap year, ~signo supersign, accent mark, ~vendejo supermarket

superstiĉ/o superstition, ~a superstitious

supoz/i suppose, presume, ~o supposition

supr/e(n) above, up(wards), on top, upstairs, ~a upper, ~(aĵ)o top, summit, surface, mal~e(n) below, downstairs

sur (up)on, ~meti put on, ~ŝipe on board, ~skribo superscription, ~verŝi pour upon

surd/a deaf, ~(a)mutulo ~mute

surfac/o surface

surpriz/i, ~o surprise

surtut/o overcoat

suspekt/i suspect, ~o suspicion, ~inda, ~ema suspicious

suspir/i sigh

susur/i, ~o rustle, swish (sound)

sutur/i, ~o suture, seam

suveren/o, ~a sovereign

svarm/i, ~o swarm

svat/i match-make, promote marriage, ~ist(in)o match-maker

sved/o Swede, ~a Swedish, ~ujo, ~io, ~lando Sweden

svelt/a slender, slim

sven/i, ~o faint, swoon

sving/i swing (transitive verb.); wave about, brandish; fling

svis/o, ~a Swiss, ~ujo, ~io, ~lando Switzerland


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ŝablon/o pattern, stencil, template

ŝaf/o sheep, ~aĵo mutton, ~ido lamb

ŝah/o shah

ŝajn/i seem, appear to be; ~as al mi, ke... it seems to me that... , ~igi feign, pretend, ~e apparently, ~o appearance

ŝak/o chess ~i check, ~tabulo ~board, ŝak! check!

ŝakal/o jackal

ŝakr/i peddle in small-time way (black market, street corners, etc.)

ŝakt/o shaft (mine, elevator)

ŝal/o shawl

ŝalt/i switch (transitive verb.), ~ilo switch, en~i turn on, el~i turn off

ŝam/o chamois

ŝanc/o luck; chance, ~eliĝi luck to leave, bonan ~on! good luck!

ŝancel/i shake (transitive verb.), ~iĝi waver

ŝanĝ/i, ~iĝi change, inter~o exchange

ŝarg/i load (gun, camera, etc.), charge (battery)

ŝarĝ/i, ~o load, burden, mal~i, sen~i unload

ŝark/o shark

ŝat/i have high regard for, like, ~inda likeable, mal~/i disgrace

ŝaŭm/o, ~i froth, foam

ŝejk/o sheik

ŝel/o shell, peel, bark, husk, sen~igi shell, peel, etc.

ŝelk/o suspenders

ŝerc/i, ~o joke, jest, ~ema playful, jocular

ŝerif/o sheriff

ŝi she, ~a her

ŝik/a chic

ŝild/o shield, sign-board

ŝim/o mold (mildew), ~a ~y, ~i get ~y

ŝin שׁ, [unicode “shin”] Hebrew 21th letter, numeric value 300, antaŭan, sekvantan

ŝind/o shingle, wood tile

ŝink/o ham

ŝip/o ship, en~iĝi embark, el~iĝi disembark, ~anaro crew, ~estro master, ~pereo ~wreck

ŝir/i tear, rip (transitive verb.), ~aĵo a tear, de~i tear off; pick (flower, etc.)

ŝirm/i, ~ilo, ~ejo shelter

ŝlim/o slime

ŝlos/i lock, mal~i unlock, ~ilo key; wrench

ŝmac/i make smacking noise with lips

ŝmink/i, ~o make up (face, etc.)

ŝmir/i smear, spread (butter, etc.), anoint, ~aĵo ointment

ŝnur/o rope, cord, ~(o)salti skip rope

ŝofor/o driver, chauffeur

ŝok/i, ~o shock

ŝose/o highway

ŝov/i shove, push along, (el)~i thrust out

ŝovel/i, ~ilo shovel

ŝovinism/o chauvinism, ~isto chauvinist

ŝpar/i save, spare, ~ema thrifty

ŝpat/o spade

ŝpin/i spin (thread), ~ilo ~dle, ~rado ~ning wheel

ŝpruc/i gush, spurt (out), ~igi squirt, ~ilo nozzle, en~igilo syringe

ŝrank/o cupboard, cabinet, sideboard, wardrobe, etc., mono~o strong-box

ŝrapnel/o shrapnel

ŝraŭb/o, ~i screw, ~ilo ~driver, ~ingo nut, ~ŝlosilo adjustable wrench

ŝrump/i shrivel up, shrink (intransitive verb.)

ŝtal/o steel

ŝtat/o state (politics entity), ~igi nationalize, ~estro head of state

ŝtel/i steal, ~isto thief, ~e stealthily

ŝtip/o block/chunk of wood, ~aro woodpile

ŝtof/o cloth, material, sub~o lining

ŝton/o stone, ~ego boulder

ŝtop/i plug up (transitive verb.), stop up, clog, ~ilo stopper, plug; electric plug, ~ilingo electric socket

ŝtorm/o storm

ŝtrump/o stocking, ~eto sock

ŝtup/o step, stair, rung, ~aro staircase

ŝu/o shoe, ~(far)isto ~maker

ŝuld/i owe, ~o debt

ŝultr/o shoulder, ~levi shrug

ŝut/i pour out (grain, etc., not liquid), super~i overwhelm

ŝveb/i hover, float in air

ŝvel/i swell (intransitive verb.), ~igi inflate

ŝvit/i perspire, sweat, ~o perspiration, sweat


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tabak/o tobacco

tabel/o table(t) (stone, wood, etc.); tabulation, viv~o actuarial table

tabernakl/o tabernacle

tabl/o table, skrib(o)~ desk

tabul/o board, plank

taĉment/o detachment

tag/o day, ~iĝo ~break, dawn, ~mezo noon, ~lumo ~light, ~manĝo dinner (midday meal), ~libro diary, ~ordo agenda, ĉiu~a daily

tajd/o tide

tajlor/o, ~i tailor

tajp/i type (on keyboard)

taks/i rate, estimate the value of; appraise, ~isto appraiser, ne~ebla priceless, tro~i overestimate, sub~i underestimate

taksi/o taxi, ~isto ~driver

takt/o tact; (music) time

taktik/o tactic(s)

talent/o talent, ~a ~ed

tali/o waist(line)

tambur/o drum, ~isto ~mer

tamen nevertheless, however, kaj tamen, sed tamen and yet

tang/o tango

tank/o tank (military)

tapet/o tapestry, wall covering, paper~o wallpaper

tapiŝ/o carpet

tas/o cup, sub~o saucer

task/o task, assigned work, ~i assign

taŭ/o Greek 19th letter τ [tau], capital form Τ, numeric value 300, antaŭan, sekvantan

taŭg/i fit, be suitable, ~a suitable, sen~a useless, sen~ulo good-for-nothing

taŭz/i tousle, dishevel

tav ת, Hebrew 22d letter, numeric value 400, antaŭan, sekvantan literon, sekvantan valeron

tavern/o tavern, inn

tavol/o layer

te/o tea, ~poto, ~kruĉo ~pot

team/o team

teatr/o theater, ~a theatrical, ~aĵo play

ted/i bore, ~a tiresome, boring

teg/i cover protectively (with cloth, overlay of metal, etc.), ~ilo protective cover

tegol/o roofing tile

tegment/o roof

tek/o briefcase; file (box or folder containing papers, films, tapes, etc.)

teknik/a technical, ~o technique, technic

teknologi/o technology

teks/i weave, ~ilo loom, ~aĵo textile

Teksas/o Texas

tekst/o text; lyric (song), ~i say, read

telefon/i, ~o telephone

telegraf/i, ~o telegraph

telegram/o telegram

telemetri/o telemetry

teler/o plate, dish, ~eto small plate, saucer

teleskop/o telescope

televid/i see on TV, ~o TV, ~ilo TV set

tem/o subject, topic, ~as pri it's a matter of

temp/o time, liber~o time off, spare time, dum~e meanwhile, sam~a simultaneous, unua~a at-first-time, beginning-time, from-the-beginning

temperament/o temperament

temperatur/o temperature

tempest/o tempest, storm

tempi/o temple (forehead)

templ/o temple (worship)

ten/i hold, hang onto, ~ilo handle, ~ujo dam, armil~ejo armory, de~i restrain, re~i hold back (transitive verb.), retain, sinde~i abstain, sin~o attitude, sub~i support

tend/o tent, ~(um)i, ~aro camp

tendenc/a tendentious, partisan, biased, ~o inherent tendency, bias

tenebr/o (literary word for) profound darkness

tenis/o tennis

tenor/o tenor (music)

tensi/o tension; voltage

tent/i tempt, entice, ~o temptation

Teodor/o Theodore

teolog/o theologian

teologi/o theology

teorem/o theorem

teori/o theory

ter/o earth, soil, ~tremo earthquake, ~globo (world)globe, ~pomo potato, en~igi bury, sub~a underground

terapi/o therapy

teras/o terrace

terebint/o turpentine

teren/o terrain, grounds; field used for an activity

teritori/o territory, ~a territorial

termin/o (technical) term, ~aro terminology, glossary

termometr/o thermometer

termos/o thermos bottle

termostat/o thermostat

tern/i, ~o sneeze

teror/o (reign of) terror, ~ismo ~ism, ~isto ~ist

terur/o terror, ~a terrible, ~i terrify

test/o, ~i (scientific) test

testament/o will, testament, ~i make a will; bequeath

testud/o tortoise, turtle [cf. turto, turtle-dove]

tet ט Hebrew 9th letter, numeric value 9, antaŭan, sekvantan

tet/o Greek 8th letter θ [theta], capital form Θ, numeric value 9 antaŭan, sekvantan

tez/o thesis, essay

ti- (forms correlative; see p. 127) tiamaniere in that way, tie kaj tie here and there, tien kaj reen back and forth, tiele thusly, tio aŭ alio one thing or another

Tibet/o Tibet

tifon/o typhoon

tig/o stem, stalk

tigr/o tiger

tik/o tic, twitch (muscle)

tikl/i tickle (transitive verb.)

tili/o linden tree

tim/i, ~o fear, ~igi frighten, ~ema timid; dio~/a, -i, -o God-fearing, devout

tin/o tub, vat

tindr/o tinder, punk

tine/o moth

tinktur/o, ~i dye, tint

tint/i, ~o tinkle, jingle

tip/o type, ~a typical

tir/i pull, draw, al~i attract, ~kesto drawer

tiran/o tyrant, ~i tyrannize

titan/o Titan, ~a titanic

titol/o title, heading, ~i title (transitive verb.)

tog/o toga

tol/o cloth (cotton, linen, canvas, etc.), ~marko laundry mark

toler/i tolerate

tomat/o tomato

tomb/o tomb, grave, ~ejo graveyard, en~igi entomb, inter

ton/o tone

tond/i clip, cut with shears, ~ilo scissors, shears, pri~i prune

tondr/o, ~i thunder

torĉ/o torch

tord/i twist (transitive verb.), contort

torent/o torrent

torn/i turn (on lathe), ~ilo lathe

tornistr/o knapsack, backpack

torped/o, ~i torpedo

tort/o pie, tart

tortur/i, ~o torture

tost/i, ~o (offer a) toast

total/a total, ~ismo ~itarianism

totem/o totem

tra through, ~vivi live through, survive, experience, ~nokti pass the night, ~vintri spend the winter

trab/o beam, girder

tradici/o tradition, ~a ~al

traduk/i translate, ~o translation

traf/i hit (desired mark), catch (train, etc.), run across (person), ~a striking, mal~i miss

trafik/o traffic

tragedi/o tragedy, ~a tragic

tragik/a = tragedia

trajn/o train

trajt/o feature, trait

trak/o track

trakt/i deal with, treat, ~aĵo treatise

traktat/o treaty

traktor/o tractor

tram/o streetcar

tranĉ/i cut, slice, ~ilo knife, ~aĵo slice

tranĉe/o trench (military)

trankvil/a calm, tranquil

trans across, on the other side of, ~lokiĝi, ~loĝiĝi move, ~porti transport, ~iri cross, transfer, ~formi transform, ~doni hand over

transistor/o transistor; small transistor radio

transitiv/a transitive

transvers/a transverse, ~e crosswise

trat/o (bank) draft, ~i make a draft

travesti/o travesty

tre very much, very, ~ege extremely, enormously

tref/o clubs (cards)

trejn/i train, coach

trem/i tremble, quiver

tremol/o aspen

tremp/i dip, immerse, soak (transitive verb.)

tren/i drag, tow, ~ŝipo tugboat

tret/i tread, trample on

trezor/o treasure

tri three, ~a, ~ono third, ~o trio, ~obla triple, ~folio clover. antaŭan, sekvantan

trib/o tribe, ~a tribal

tribord/o starboard

tribun/o rostrum, speaker's platform

tribunal/o tribunal

tribut/o tribute, ~i pay tribute

tricikl/o tricycle

trigonometri/o trigonometry

trik/i knit, ~ilo ~ting needle

trikoloret/o pansy

tril/i, ~o trill (music)

trilion/o trillion; per Wells, 1018. Usually American English, 1012. antaŭan, sekvantan

trilogi/o trilogy

trink/i, ~aĵo drink

trist/a (poetic word for) sad

tritik/o wheat

triumf/o, ~i triumph

trivial/a vulgar, course, commonplace

tro too much, too, ~igi exaggerate

trog/o trough, manger

trole/o trolley, ~buso ~bus

trombon/o trombone

tromp/i deceive, cheat

tron/o throne

tropik/a tropical, ~o the tropics

trot/i trot

trotuar/o sidewalk

trov/i find, ~iĝi, sin ~i be found, be located, find oneself

tru/o hole

trud/i impose, force, en~iĝi intrude

trumpet/o, ~i trumpet

trunk/o trunk (tree, body, etc.)

trup/o troop

trut/o trout

tualet/o toilette

tub/o tube, pipe; barrel (gun)

tuberkuloz/o tuberculosis

tuj immediately, ~a immediate

tuk/o cloth, antaŭ~o apron

tulip/o tulip

tumor/o tumor

tumult/o tumult, riot

tun/o ton

tunel/o tunnel

tunik/o tunic

tur/o tower; castle (chess)

turist/o tourist

turk/o Turk, ~a ~ish, ~ujo, ~io ~ey

turment/i, ~o torment

turn/i turn (transitive verb.), ~i sin turn around; ~i sin al apply to; for~i turn away

turne/o (theatrical) tour

turnir/o tournament

turto turtle-dove [not “turtle,” cf. testudo]

tus/i, ~o cough

tusilag/o coltsfoot (plant)

tuŝ/i touch

tut/a entire, whole, ~e entirely, ~e ne not at all, ne ~e not quite, en~e as a whole, altogether, ~monda worldwide, super~o overalls, ~aĵo entirety

tvist/o, ~i twist (dance)


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-uj/ (suffix denoting container; see pp. 132, 187) ~o container

-ul/ (suffix denoting person; see p. 143) ulo guy, fellow

ulcer/o ulcer

Ulis/o Ulysses

ulm/o elm

ultimat/o ultimatum

-um/ (suffix with indefinite meaning; see p. 194) ~(aĵ)o whatchamacallit, thingamajig

umbilik/o navel

unc/o ounce

ung/o nail (finger, toe), claw (animal)

uni/o (politics) union

uniform/o uniform

unik/a unique

univers/o universe

universal/a universal, worldwide

universitat/o university

upsilon/o Greek 20th letter υ [upsilon], capital form Υ, numeric value 400, antaŭan, sekvantan

unu one, ~a first, ~e first of all, firstly, ~o unit, ~anima unanimous, ~atempa at-first-time, beginning-time, from-the-beginning, ~eco unity, ~eca unified, ~igi unite, ~iĝinta united, ~ope singly, one at a time, ~foje once, unu la alian one another. antaŭan, sekvantan

uragan/o hurricane

urani/o uranium

urb/o city, ~a urban, ~ego metropolis, ~eto town, ~(o)domo city hall, ~estro mayor, sub~o, antaŭ~o suburb

urĝ/a urgent, ~i urge, press, hurry (someone), ne ~as there's no hurry

urin/o urine, ~i urinate

urs/o bear

urtik/o nettle

Urugvaj/o Uruguay, ~a, ~ano ~an

Uson/o the USA, ~a, ~ano American

uter/o womb

util/a useful, advantageous, ~(ec)o use(fulness), sen~a useless, ~igi make use of, utilize, mal~i, mal~o harm, mal~a harmful

Utopi/o Utopia, ~a ~n

uvertur/o overture (music)

uz/i, ~o use, el~i use up, wear out, ~antnumero, ~antokonto user id, user account

uzin/o (heavy industry) factory, mill

uzur/o usury

uzurp/i usurp


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ŭat/o Watt


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vad/i wade, tra~i ford

vafl/o waffle, ~eto wafer; cone (ice cream)

vag/i roam, wander, ~anta wandering, wayward, ~ema aimless, ~ulo vagabond, "rolling stone"

vagin/o vagina

vagon/o railway carriage, ~aro train

vak/a vacant, ~i be vacant, ~igi vacate

vakcin/o vaccine, ~i vaccinate

vaker/o cowboy

vaks/o wax, ~tolo oilcloth

vaku/o vacuum

val/o valley

valid/a valid, ~i be valid, ~igi validate

valiz/o valise, small suitcase

valor/o value, ~a valuable, ~i be worth, sen~a worthless

vals/o, ~i waltz

valut/o currency (of a country); foreign exchange rate

valv/o valve; tube (electricity)

van/a futile, useless, ~e in vain

vandal/o vandal

vang/o cheek, ~ofrapo slap

vanil/o vanilla

vant/a conceited, vain; frivolous, ~aĵo frivolity, silliness

vapor/o steam, vapor, ~ŝipo steamship

var/o(j) wares, merchandise, commodity

varb/i, ~ito recruit, ~iĝi enlist

vari/i vary (intransitive verb.), ~a variable, ~aĵo variation

variete/o variety show

variol/o smallpox, ~eto chicken pox

varm/a warm, ~ega hot, ~eta lukewarm, mal~a cold, mal~umo a cold (illness)

Varsovi/o Warsaw

vart/i, ~ist(in)o nurse

vast/a vast, spacious, mal~a close, cramped (for space), dis~igi spread (news, etc.)

Vaŝington/o Washington

vat/o cotton wool, wadding; (electricity) Watt

Vatikan/o the Vatican

vav ו Hebrew 6th letter, numeric value 6, antaŭan, sekvantan

vav/o the letter W antaŭan, sekvantan

vaz/o vessel (any container), vase

vazelin/o vaseline

ve! woe! ho ve! alas! Oh dear! ~spiri sigh, hejm~o homesickness

veget/i vegetate

vegetar/a, ~ano vegetarian

vejn/o vein

vek/i wake (transitive verb.), arouse, ~iĝi wake up, ~horloĝo alarm clock

vel/o sail

velk/i fade, wither

velur/o, ~a velvet

ven/i come, al~i arrive, kun~i meet, re~i come back, de~i come from, derive or result from, ~onta next

vend/i sell, ~ejo store, ~isto salesman

vendred/o Friday; antaŭan, sekvantan

venen/o, ~i poison

vener/a venereal

Venezuel/o Venezuela

venĝ/i avenge, ~o revenge, vengeance, ~emulo avenger

venk/i defeat, win over, ~o victory

vent/o wind, ~umi, ~umilo fan, ~ego windstorm

ventol/i ventilate, ~ilo ventilator

ventr/o belly, tummy

Venus/o Venus

ver/a true,~e really, truly, ~o truth, reality, ~ama truth-loving, ~dire to tell the truth, ~eco veracity, ~ŝajne probably

verb/o verb

verd/a, ~o green

verdikt/o verdict

verg/o rod, switch; wand, ~i flog, take a switch to

verk/o (literary or artistic) work, ~i write, create (literature, music, etc.), ~isto writer, ~aro (collected) works, ~into author

verm/o worm

vermut/o wormwood, hemlock, vermuth

vers/o one line of verse, song, etc.

versi/o version

verŝ/i pour (liquids); shed, scatter, el~i pour out, en~i pour in, sur~i pour upon

verŝajn/a probable, likely, ~e probably, ~o probability

vert/o top of head

vertebr/o vertebra

vertiĝ/o vertigo, dizziness, ~i feel dizzy

vertikal/a vertical

veruk/o wart

verv/o verve, vivacity, ~a vivacious, lively, sen~a lifeless, dull

vesp/o wasp

vesper/o evening, ~e in the evening

vespert/o bat

vespr/o vespers, evensong

vest/i (transitive verb.) clothe, dress, ~iĝi get dressed, vest(aĵ)o garment, ~oj clothes, sen~iĝi undress, strip, sub~o undergarment

veŝt/o vest

vet/i, ~o bet, wager, ~kuri race

veter/o weather, ~informoj weather report

veteran/o veteran

veterinar/o veterinarian

vetur/i travel; go (not walking), ~ilo vehicle, ~igi drive

vezik/o bladder; bubble, ~eto blister

vi you ~a ~r(s)

viand/o meat

vibr/i vibrate, ~(ad)o vibration

vic/o row, rank; turn; vice-, ~e in rows, laŭ~e in turn, ~prezidanto vice-president, ~patro step-father, mia ~o my turn, sia~e in their turn

vid/i see, ~o sight, ~aĵo view, ~ebla visible, ~inda worth seeing, ~punkto viewpoint, ~bendo videotape

vidv/o widower, ~ino widow

Vien/o Vienna

vigl/a alert, keen, brisk, re~igas revive, refresh

viking/o Viking

viktim/o victim

vil/a shaggy, hairy

vila/o villa

vilaĝ/o village, ~eto hamlet

Vilĉj/o Bill

Vilhelm/o William

vin/o wine, ~bero grape, ~berejo vineyard

vinagr/o vinegar

vind/i wrap (in cloth), bandage, ~otuko swaddling cloth

vintr/o winter; antaŭan, sekvantan

viol/o violet

violon/o violin

violonĉel/o cello

vip/o, ~i whip

vipur/o viper

vir/o man, ~ino woman, ~a male, ~ina female, ~eco virility

virg/a, ~ul(in)o virgin

virt/o virtue, morality, mal~o vice

virtuoz/o virtuoso

virus/o virus

visk/o mistletoe

viski/o whisky

viŝ/i wipe, ~tuko dust rag; dish cloth

vit/o (grape)vine

vitamin/o vitamin

vitr/o glass (material), okul~oj eyeglasses, ~aĵo pane

vitrin/o showcase

viv/i live, ~o life, tra~i experience, survive, vivu! long live! ~teni support

viz/o visa

vizaĝ/o face

vizi/o vision

vizit/i visit; attend, ~o visit

vjetnam/o, ~a Vietnam(ese)

voĉ/o voice; vote, ~e orally, ~doni vote

vodk/o vodka

voj/o way, road, ~montrilo signpost, ~disiĝo crossroad

vojaĝ/i travel, ~o trip, voyage, ~anto traveler, ~ema inclined to travel

vojevod/o title of provincial governor in Poland

vok/i call, summon, al~i invoke, appeal to, el~i evoke

vokal/o vowel

vokt/o taskmaster

vol/o will(ingness), ~i be willing to, want to, laŭ~e as one pleases, at will, ~i diri mean

Volapuk/o Volapuk, Tio estas ~aĵo "It's all Greek to me"

volb/o vault(ed ceiling)

volont/a willing, voluntary, ~e willingly, ~ulo volunteer

volt/o Volt

volum/o volume (book, etc.)

volupt/a voluptuous, ~o sexual pleasure

volv/i wind up, roll up, mal~i unroll

vom/i vomit, throw up

vort/o word, ~aro dictionary, vocabulary, ali~e in other words laŭ~e verbatim, word-for-word

vost/o tail

vot/o, ~i vow

vual/o, ~i veil

vulgar/a common, everyday

vulkan/o volcano

vulp/o fox

vultur/o vulture

vund/o wound, injury, ~i wound


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zain ז [unicode “zayin”] Hebrew 7th letter, numeric value 7, antaŭan, sekvantan

zebr/o zebra

zefir/o zephyr

zenit/o zenith

zet/o Greek 6th letter ζ [zeta], capital form Ζ, numeric value 7, antaŭan literon, antaŭan valoron, sekvantan (literon kaj valoron)

zigzag/i, ~a zigzag

zink/o zinc

zip/o zipper

zodiak/o zodiac

zon/o belt, girdle; zone

zoologi/o zoology

zorg/i (take) care (of), see to, worry (about), ~o care, concern (for), ~eme carefully, antaŭ~eco foresight, prudence

zum/i, ~o hum, buzz; roar (traffic, etc.), ~ilo buzzer


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Enrique Ellemberg

Albany, NY, USA
enrique@eeo.8k.com
homepage

November 16th, 2000

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